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(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Chapter Fifteen Teaching Students with Special Needs in Elementary Schools This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Introduction Elementary school presents both unique challenges and unique opportunities for students with disabilities and special needs who are included in general education classes. In contrast to that at the secondary level, curriculum differentiation at the elementary level is more limited. Elementary school offers an important beginning point for students with disabilities to profit from positive interactions with their nondisabled peers.
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Inclusion at the Elementary Level The advent of the inclusion movement has increased the likelihood that many students with disabilities will receive a significant portion, or all, of their instruction in the general education classroom.
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Elementary Inclusive Placements: 1998-1999 57.2% of all students with disabilities (ages 6-11) were served in general education classes for at least 79% of the school day. An additional 23.6% of all students with disabilities (ages 6-11) were served in general education classes for 40%-79% of the school day.
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Curriculum is a “master plan for selecting content and organizing learning experiences for the purpose of changing and developing learners’ behaviors and insights” (Armstrong, 1990, p. 4). Definition of Curriculum
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Comprehensive Curriculum Educators should consider the concept of a comprehensive curriculum. Educators should also consider what will happen to students in the future and consider the environments that students will need to adapt to in order to function successfully. Curriculum design should be based on these subsequent environments.
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Qualities of a Comprehensive Elementary Curriculum Responsive to the needs of the individual at the current time Reflective of the need to balance maximum interaction with peers against critical curricular needs Derived from a realistic appraisal of potential long-term outcomes for individual students Consistent with relevant forthcoming transitional needs (e.g., transition from elementary to middle school)
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Curricular Content Academic Instruction for Students with Disabilities Includes: Reading Instruction Writing Instruction Mathematics Instruction Social Skills Instruction
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Reading Approaches Basal Series -- graded class reading texts Direct Instruction -- direct teaching of skills Whole Language -- primarily emphasize meaning at the beginning of the reading program
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Basal Series Approach This approach is the most typical means of teaching reading. This approach is intended to meet the developmental needs of children in reading.
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Advantages/Disadvantages of Basal Reading Series ADVANTAGES: Contain inherent structure and sequence Provide a controlled vocabulary Offer a wide variety of teaching activities Include materials that provide preparation for the teacher DISADVANTAGES: May include inappropriate pacing for an individual child. May focus on certain skills to the exclusion of others Encourages a group instructional orientation
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Direct Instruction of Reading Typically encourages decoding/ phonological awareness skills Focuses on specific skills acquisition Other characteristics include: High levels of academic engaged time Ongoing feedback to learners Error-free learning Group-based instruction Signals for attention
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Whole Language Embraces a more holistic view of learning than direct instruction Stress an integrated approach to learning across curricular areas Relies on authentic reading sources Research has questioned the use of this approach, especially with students who are at risk or who have disabilities.
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Perspectives on Reading It is unlikely that a single reading approach can meet all of a student’s needs. Teachers will need to review students’ progress on a regular basis and make modifications as needed. The challenge for the classroom teachers is to balance the needs of able readers with the needs of students who require more systematic instruction
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Results from the National Reading Panel (2000) Comprehension Monitoring Cooperative Learning Graphic and Semantic Organizers Story Structure Question Answering Question Generation Summarization Multiple-Strategy Teaching
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Early Literacy Project This approach has been used effectively with students with special needs in inclusive classrooms. The Early Literacy Project blends holistic and skills-based reading within the context of effective instructional principles.
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Best Practices in Expressive Writing Instruction (Vaughn, Gersten, & Chord, 2000) Explicit teaching of the critical steps in the writing process Explicit teaching of the conventions of a writing genre Guided feedback
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Guidelines for Providing Frequent & Meaningful Writing Opportunities (Graham, 1992, p. 137) Assist students in thinking about what they will write. Ask students to establish goals for what they hope to achieve. Arrange the writing environment so that the teacher is not the sole influence for students’ writing. Provide opportunities for students to work on the same project across days or even weeks. Incorporate writing into broad-based curricular activities.
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Mathematics Instruction The development of both computational skills and problem-solving abilities forms the foundation of successful mathematics instruction and learning.
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Teaching Computational Skills Focus first on student’s conceptual understanding of a particular skill and then on the achievement of automaticity of the skill.
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Teaching Problem-Solving Skills in Mathematics Instruction in specific problem-solving strategies can greatly enhance students’ understanding. Example: SOLVE-IT Strategy
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Social Skills Instruction FOUR APPROACHES: Direct Social Skills Training Behavioral Change Affective Education Cognitive Interventions
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Key Considerations for Teaching Social Skills (Korinek & Polloway, 1993) Priority should be given to the skills most needed for immediate interactions in the classroom. A social skills program should be selected that promotes both social skills and social competence. A decision must be made as to who will teach social skills. For students with significant disabilities, teachers will need to provide the following to facilitate the acquisition and maintenance of social skills: Specific instruction Physical prompts Modeling Praise
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Transition from Preschool to Primary School AREAS OF EMPHASIS: Readiness Skills Social Skills Responsiveness to Instructional Styles Responsiveness to Daily Learning Environment
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Approaches for Integrating Life Skills into the Curriculum Curriculum Augmentation Curriculum Infusion Integrated Curriculum
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Transition to Middle School KEY SKILLS NEEDED: Organized approach to work Time management/study skills Note-taking strategies Homework strategies Ability to use lockers Interventions for students in middle school should emphasize developing coping skills for academic demands, peer stress, and relationships with teachers.
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Tips for Facilitating Transition of Students from Middle School to Elementary School Middle school faculty should visit elementary classes to discuss programs and expectations. Elementary faculty should videotape middle school classes and take field trips to the middle school to learn about the physical layout, changing of classes, and environmental/pedagogical factors. Cooperative planning and follow-up at both schools should occur.
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Cooperative Teaching Cooperative or collaborative teaching is a restructuring of teaching procedures in which two or more educators possessing distinct sets of skills work in a coactive and coordinated fashion to jointly teach academically and behaviorally heterogeneous groups of students in educationally integrated settings, that is, in general [education] classrooms.
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Supported Education as an Approach to Facilitate Inclusion Supported education is an approach that places students in the least restrictive environment and provides the necessary supports for them to be successful.
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Prereferral Interventions Prereferral intervention is a problem- solving process aimed at meeting the needs of students who exhibit learning and/or behavioral problems. The objective of prereferral interventions is to successfully meet the needs of students within the context of their respective classrooms.
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Assumptions of the Team Approach to Prereferral Interventions Problems can be solved more effectively when they are clearly defined. Members of a team can often objectively perceive a student’s problem better than the referring teacher, who may be emotionally involved in the situation. A team of professionals is better able to develop intervention strategies than one or two professionals. Many of the problems students have are complex and require the expertise of professionals from varied backgrounds and disciplines. Most learning and behavior problems are not indicative of a disability; many such problems can be reduced/eliminated without the need for special education services.
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Stages in the Prereferral Process A teacher/staff members notices that the student is having difficulty and makes a referral. The prereferral team analyzes the student’s difficulties. The prereferral team develops strategies to resolve the student’s difficulties.
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Instructional Strategies that Significantly Impact Learning (Vaughn, et al., 2000) Controlling of Task Difficulty Teaching Students in Small Interactive Groups Using Directed Response Questioning
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Distinction Between Accommodations and Modifications Accommodations refer to changes in input and output processes in teaching and assessment. Modifications refer to changes in content and/or standards. Studies indicate that teachers are more willing to consider accommodations and may be more reluctant to consider implementing modifications. This is an issue of treatment acceptability.
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Typical Adaptations Adapting Instruction Adapting Assignments Teaching Learning Skills Altering Instructional Materials Modifying Curriculum Varying Instructional Grouping Enhancing Behavior Facilitating Progress Monitoring
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Strategies for Enhancing Selective & Sustained Attention Emphasize content through repetition, vocal emphasis, and cueing Convey a message that is meaningful, logical, and coherent Deliver messages in short units Allow for listener participation in the form of clarification, feedback, or responding Provide reinforcement for attending Allow listener an opportunity to reflect upon and integrate the message before formulating a response
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Review lessons before additional content is presented. Keep oral directions short and direct. Supplement them with written directions. Reduce the number of concepts introduced at a given time. Provide further guided practice by requiring more responses, lengthening practice sessions, or scheduling extra sessions. Clarify directions for follow-up activities so tasks can be completed successfully. Relate information to students’ prior experiences and provide an overview before beginning. Provide repetition, review, and additional examples. Encourage students to detect errors in messages & report what they do not understand. Use concrete concepts before teaching abstractions. Effectively Presenting Content
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Adapting Reading Tasks Highlight key words and phrases. Use reciprocal teaching. Locate lower-level material on the same topic to adapt tasks. Re-teach vocabulary words. Encourage students to raise questions about content to facilitate comprehension. Preview reading materials with students. Teach students to consider K-W-L as a technique to focus attention. Demonstrate how new content relates to content previously learned. Encourage periodic feedback from students to check understanding. Teach the use of active comprehension strategies by asking questions about text. Utilize advance organizers and visual aids. Establish an assignment’s purpose and importance.
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Enhancing Written Responses Allow group-written responses. Provide the student with a copy of lecture notes produced by the teacher or peer. Set realistic, mutually- agreed upon expectations for neatness. Allow sufficient space for answering problems. Let students type or tape-record responses. Change the response mode to oral, when appropriate. Reduce amounts of board copying or text copying. Allow children to circle or underline responses. Allow children to select the most comfortable method of writing (i.e., cursive or manuscript.
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Promoting Following Instructions and Completing Assignments Arrange for the student to have a study buddy. Check for understanding by having student repeat the directions. List/post requirements necessary to complete each assignment. Quietly repeat directions to the student after they have been given to the entire class. Check assignments frequently. Give one direction at a time. Provide examples and specific steps to accomplish the task. Use alerting cues. Break up tasks into workable and obtainable steps. Get the student’s attention before giving directions.
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Involving Peers Through Cooperative Learning Peer Tutoring Classwide Peer Tutoring Peer Assisted Learning Strategies Group Projects
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Multicultural Issues Elementary teachers should introduce specific activities which promote cultural awareness and sensitivity. These activities should be designed to develop students’ appreciation of diversity.
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Adapting the Temporal Environment Space short work periods with breaks of changes of task. Increase the amount of time allowed to complete assignments or tests. Teach time management skills. Provide each student with a copy of the schedule. Allow extra practice time for students who understand content but need additional time to achieve mastery. Review class schedules with students to reinforce routines. Contract with students concerning time allotment with reinforcement for completion addressed. Develop schedules that balance routines with novelty.
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Adapting the Classroom Arrangement Set aside space for group work, individual seatwork, and free-time activities. Locate student seats and learning activities in areas free from distraction. Establish high- and low- frequency areas for class work. Use study carrels. Provide opportunities for approved movement within the class. Balance structure, organization, and regimentation with opportunities for freedom and exploration. Allow students to decide where it s best for them to work and study. Establish a climate that fosters positive social interactions among students.
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Enhancing Motivation Provide immediate feedback on the correctness of work. Camouflage instructional materials which are at a lower instructional level. Provide experiences that ensure success, and offer positive feedback when students are successful. Allow students to choose where to work, what tools to use, and what to do first, as long as their work is completed. Allow peers to earn points or tokens to exchange for a valued activity or privilege. Use contingency contracts. Use high-status materials for instructional activities. Have students set personal goals and graph their progress.
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Homework Communication Problems Noted by Elementary Teachers Do not know enough about the abilities of students with disabilities who are mainstreamed into their classes. Do not know how to use special education support services or teachers to assist students with disabilities about homework. Lack knowledge about the adaptations that can be made to homework. Are not clear about their responsibility to communicate with special education teachers about the homework of students with disabilities. Are not aware of their responsibility to communicate with parents of students with disabilities about homework.
(c) Allyn & Bacon 2004Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2004 Responsible Grading Practices Students with disabilities often receive poor grades in their general education classes. Grading is sometimes the shared responsibility of general educators and special educators. Questions about fairness often arise.
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