Origins of the American Women’s Suffrage Movement Elizabeth Cady Stanton Lucretia Mott
Seneca Falls Convention, New York 1848 Considered the beginnings of the women’s movement in the United States. 300 women and men attended the convention The goals of convention including publicizing how women were treated as lower citizens. Demanded that women be allowed to vote.
Susan B Anthony Friend of Cady Stanton Powerful speaker In 1869, Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton founded the National Woman Suffrage Association which was dedicated to gaining women's suffrage.
Origins of the American Women’s Suffrage Movement Sojourner Truth Victoria Woodhull
During the late 1800s the American Women’s Suffrage Movement became divided by many important issues. Examples include the following movements: Abolition Temperance/18 th Amendment Fair Wages Labor/Unions 14 th and 15 th Amendments Roles of woman in society. Carry Nation
Women’s Suffrage Movement was divided between state and federal movements. Some people thought women’s suffrage should be fought for state by state. Other people thought one national amendment was needed to get women the right to vote.
The first territories/states to allow women to vote. 1869: Wyoming Territory’s Constitution grants women the right to vote and to hold public office. 1870: Utah territory gives full suffrage to women. 1893: Colorado gives women full suffrage. 1911: Women have full suffrage in California
Women’s Suffrage movement in England Some women in the Suffrage movement became fed up with the slow process and backtracking of England’s government on the Women’s Suffrage Act. The Women’s Suffrage movement in England went to more extreme measures to try convince the government to change its policies. New measures included harassment, throwing bricks, and an attempted bombing of the Prime Minster’s House.
Emily Davison throws herself in front of the King’s Horse during a derby in England June 1913 Derby
Alice Paul Alice Paul was one of the most influential people in getting the 19 th Amendment passed in the United States. Very intelligent, she earned Ph.D in Civil Law Became very active in the Women’s Suffrage movement at a young age Powerful speaker and political organizer Went to college in England in 1907 and started following the Suffrage movement in England
Alice Paul Alice Paul returned to the United States in 1910. In 1912 Alice Paul and her friend Lucy Burns took over the National American Woman Suffrage Association. Alice Paul was warned by the committee not to use any tactics used by suffragists from England.
Alice Paul Alice Paul quickly organized the National American Woman Suffrage Association into powerful political organization. Alice Paul searched for political support and fundraising money. Both Democrats and Republicans wanted the support of NAWSA in 1912 presidential elections. NAWSA supported Democrat Woodrow Wilson and expected that he would support a National Suffrage Amendment.
Alva Belmont/Vanderbilt was a prominent multi- millionaire and a major figure in the women suffrage movement. She helped sponsor the Suffragette newspaper.
Who did the Women’s Suffrage Campaign Represent? The original women’s suffrage movement was centered on educated, middle-class white women, who were often reluctant to accept immigrants, blacks, and the working class into their ranks. Alice Paul and Alva Belmont/Vanderbilt started to recruit and reach out to all women. Alice Paul tried to show how women’s suffrage would improve the lives of all Americans.
Ida B.Wells Early Civil Rights Activist Spoke out against lynchings in America. Supported African Americans through being one of the creators of the NAACP. Supported suffrage for all women.
1913 Women Suffrage Parade March 3, 1913 The parade was held the day that the new president Woodrow Wilson arrived in Washington, D.C. Five to eight thousand suffragists marched from the U.S. Capitol past the White House. Most people in Washington ignored the arrival of the new president and attended the parade At least 250,000 people watched the Suffrage Parade. During the parade a riot broke out and women were spit on and some were beaten by the crowd. The police did nothing to protect the marchers. The publicity of the march brought new support to the women’s suffrage movement.
The cover of the official program for the 1913 parade.
Ida B.Wells During the 1913 National Suffrage March Ida B. Wells refused to march at the back with other black delegates during a demonstration. Many people in Washington D.C. were shocked be her bold actions.
The crowd of spectators grows along suffrage march route.
Many members of the crowd attacked the marchers.
A crowd surrounds an ambulance at the Washington suffrage parade.
The parade and riot brought a lot of publicity to the women’s suffrage movement.
The Woman’s Movement becomes divided again. Many women in the National American Woman Suffrage Association thought Alice Paul was bringing bad publicity to the women’s movement. NAWSA thought women could win the right to vote state by state.
State Reform vs. Federal Amendment Alice Paul and her supporters split from NAWSA and formed the National Woman’s Party in 1916. They began introducing some of the methods used by the suffrage movement in Britain. Alice Paul and her supporters were some of the first Americans to use non-violent and civil disobedience to convince Americans of their cause.
A pre-election women's suffrage parade in New York City, October, 1915. 20,000 women marched.
Woodrow Wilson During his first term as president, Woodrow Wilson did not actively support the Women’s Suffrage Movement.
Alice Paul and her supporters felt betrayed by Wilson. During the 1916 presidential election, the Alice Paul and her supporters campaigned vigorously against Woodrow Wilson’s refusal to support the women’s suffrage amendment.
NAWSA’s Declaration to the Nation Of the many reasons that women fought for the right to vote, one that most resonated with American citizens was the fact that these women were paying taxes into a government that did not endow them the same rights as male citizens. (Taxation without representation)
Minnesota and Women’s Suffrage Minnesota 1917 Rep. Thomas Girling of Robbinsdale argued that "women shouldn't be dragged into the dirty pool of politics.“ Approving such a measure would "cause irreparable damage at great expense to the state. In 1917, Women’s Suffrage Amendment passed in the Minnesota House of Representative by a 85-41 vote. In the Minnesota Senate the women’s suffrage proposal was defeated in a 31-35 vote. Finally, in 1919, women’s suffrage was passed in Minnesota.
Most politicians felt the Woman’s Suffrage Movement should stop while the war was going on.
Picketing the White House Alice Paul and her supporters decided to increase their picketing of the White House and use Wilson’s own words against him in their protests. Why is he referred to as “Kaiser” Wilson?
The Trial In 1917 and 1918, almost 500 suffragists were arrested during their picketing of the White House; 168, including National Woman's Party Chairperson Alice Paul, were tried, convicted, and imprisoned for terms of up to seven months for blocking traffic on a sidewalks. Most of the women refused to pay fines as low as five dollars and instead chose to be imprisoned. The women believed they were imprisoned for their political beliefs and became the first U.S. citizens to claim that their government held them as political prisoners.
The protesters, including Alice Paul were sent to a jail/workhouse outside of Washington, D.C.
The Hunger Strikes! Many of imprisoned women also went on hunger strikes to support Alice Paul. The women were forcibly fed by having a tube forced up their nose. The reports of the “tortures” were released by newspapers and the American public became outraged at the treatment of these women.
Alice Paul and her supporters were released from jail, but they continued to protest.
1918 Elections Many Americans disagree with Wilson’s handling of the war, civil liberties, and women’s suffrage. In the 1918 elections, the Democrats lost control of both the House and Senate. For the next two years, most of Wilson’s programs and policies were blocked by the Republicans. Warren Harding, a Republican, was elected President in 1920.
American women did everything their country asked of them in World War I.
Wilson’s Viewpoints change In January, 1918, Wilson announced that women's suffrage was urgently needed as a "war measure", and strongly urged Congress to pass the legislation. Many politicians thought Wilson was trying to gain more votes for Democrats in 1918 elections.
The 19 th Amendment gains support! In May 1919, the amendment passed the House. On June 4, 1919, the amendment passed the Senate. Wisconsin became the first state to approve the 19 th Amendment on June 10, 1919. 2/3 of the states approved the 19 th Amendment by August 1920. Women were able to vote in the election of 1920. Minnesota was the 15 th state to approve the 19 th Amendment in September 1919. Mississippi was the last state to approve the 19 th Amendment in 1984.
Alice Paul sewed stars on the woman suffrage ratification flag, representing another state that has ratified the 19th amendment.
The War of the Roses Tennessee was the last state needed for a 2/3 majority of the Women’s Suffrage Amendment.
The War of the Roses When the Tennessee Representatives first voted on the amendment they tied, 48 for and 48 against the amendment. The same thing happened on the second vote. By the time of the third vote, Harry Burns, who was initially against the amendment, received a letter from his mother asking him to support the new amendment. Harry changed his vote and the women’s suffrage amendment passed by one vote. Some Representatives were so mad at Harry Burns they begin chasing him around the capital building. Harry escaped out of a window and later hid in the attic of the capital out of fear of being beaten or killed.
The War of the Roses 1920: On August 26, the constitutional amendment is adopted when Tennessee ratifies it, granting full woman suffrage in all states of the United States.
Alice Paul celebrates the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920.
When Tennessee became the 36th state to ratify the woman suffrage amendment, Alice Paul unfurled a 36-star victory banner at National Woman's Party headquarters.
Jeannette Rankin The first woman elected to the U.S. House of Representatives. She represented Montana. She was elected statewide in Montana. There are currently 93 women in Congress. 76 women in the House and 17 women in the Senate.
What voting issues might be more important to women then men?
What has been the impact of women being able to vote?
What did you learn today? List three things you learned about the Women’s Suffrage Movement.
Resources Books Woman Suffrage and Women's Rights A Woman's Crusade: Alice Paul and the Battle for the Ballot Century of Struggle: The Woman's Rights Movement in the United States Videos One Woman, One Vote Not for Ourselves Alone: The Story of Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Susan B. Anthony Iron Jawed Angels