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Focused Learning Through Direct Instruction Session Three: Instruction That Works: Activating Prior Knowledge and Checking for Understanding Presented.

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Presentation on theme: "Focused Learning Through Direct Instruction Session Three: Instruction That Works: Activating Prior Knowledge and Checking for Understanding Presented."— Presentation transcript:

1 Focused Learning Through Direct Instruction Session Three: Instruction That Works: Activating Prior Knowledge and Checking for Understanding Presented by : Lorna Manuel, Patty Garrison, & Doreen Fuller Moderated by: Nancy Silva, CTAP Region 2 - BCOE Regional System of District and School Support (RSDSS), Region 2

2 Adobe Connect Interface (Pods) Presentation & Internet Sharing Pod Toggle view of the presentation between full screen and meeting room views to suit your preference.

3 Adobe Connect Interface (Pods) Communication Pods Chat Room Pod Attendee List Pod

4 Adobe Connect Interface (Pods) File Sharing Pod 1.Click on the file you want to download. 2.Click on “Save to My Computer”. 3.When “Save” window opens, select “Click to Download”. 4.Select where you want to download the file to i.e. “Desktop”. 5.After file downloads, click “Done”. 6.Repeat for each additional file you want to download.

5 Set Your Connection Speed Please take a moment to select your Internet connection speed. If you are unsure, select the DSL option. This will improve the presentation & audio for all participants. Thanks : )

6 Meeting Procedures Different meeting rooms… with different views Use the Chat Room to ask questions as they arise. Actively participate by sharing comments and feedback

7 Don’t Forget to Smile When You Chat…. ; ) This workshop will be recorded and archived. So……

8 Focused Learning Through Direct Instruction Session Three: Instruction That Works: Activating Prior Knowledge and Checking for Understanding Presented by : Lorna Manuel, Patty Garrison, & Doreen Fuller Moderated by: Nancy Silva, CTAP Region 2 - BCOE Regional System of District and School Support (RSDSS), Region 2

9 Webinar Learning Objectives  Participants will become familiar with the importance of Activating Prior Knowledge in lesson delivery.  Participants will be able to differentiate between examples and non-examples of appropriate questioning techniques for use in Activating Prior Knowledge.  Participants will be able to recognize Activating Prior Knowledge strategies and how to apply them to their own lessons.

10 DI – Lesson Design Components LLearning Objective AActivate Prior Knowledge CConcept Development LLesson Importance SSkill Development GGuided Practice LLesson Closure IIndependent Practice

11 Activating Prior Knowledge (APK) Defined  Is helping students to retrieve pertinent prior knowledge so that new content is easier to learn.  Is connecting existing knowledge to new knowledge.

12 Why is APK Important? In How the Brain Learns, David Sousa (2001) notes that “Past experiences always influence new learning. What we know acts as a filter, helping us attend to those things that have meaning and discard those that don’t”. When we learn something new, we are much more likely to understand it if we see connections that make it relevant. When these connections are unseen, understanding gets cloudy.

13 What are the Benefits?  Learning experiences that draw on students’ prior knowledge act to  assist students in relating new information (or skills) to what they already know and can do  allow for the surfacing of misconceptions or naïve conceptions that may impede learning Audience Participation: What is an additional benefit of APK? Please type in your response.

14 What are the Benefits?  Learning experiences that draw on students’ prior knowledge act to:  assist students in relating new information (or skills) to what they already know and can do  allow for the surfacing of misconceptions or naïve conceptions that may impede learning  allow teachers to make decisions to augment and strength students’ knowledge before new information is engaged  identify gaps in knowledge or skills that may exist  creates a scaffold for new learning  stimulate interest, curiosity and motivation, or initiate an inquiry process that can provide a more personalized learning experience

15 Prior Knowledge can be activated through preexisting pathways. Through Attitudes:  Beliefs about ourselves as learners/readers  Awareness of our individual interests and strength  Motivation and our desire to read

16 Through Experiences:  Everyday activities and skills  Events in our lives that provide background understanding  Family and community experiences that they bring to school with them

17 Through Knowledge:  Of content  Of topics (fables, photosynthesis, fractions)  Of concepts  Of academic and personal goals

18 Selecting Knowledge to Activate  The Learning Objective contains the knowledge to activate.  It is related to either the objective’s concept or skill Sample learning objective: Students will compare and contrast the setting from two stories.

19 Ways to Activate Knowledge  Universal Experience  Sub-skill Review Example: Asking the class, “When reading a story, what are some words that might give you clues about the setting?”

20 Connect to Familiar Content/Concept  Connect information to what students are familiar with and what they are going to be taught.  Do not use new vocabulary in making these connections

21 Connect to Familiar Content/Concept  Connect information to what students are familiar with and what they are going to be taught.  Do not use new vocabulary in making these connections ExampleNon-example When you are trying to convince your mother to give you some money, what do you do? Who knows what persuasive means? Your own exampleYour own non-example

22 Steps in Activating Prior Knowledge  Step 1: Provide students with a universal experience or sub-skill review  Step 2: Facilitate student interaction  Step 3: Connect the prior knowledge to the new lesson A Five Minute Process

23 Activating Prior Knowledge Strategies

24 Think Pair Share Metacognition is Thinking About Thinking  To invoke the process used to arrive at a response rather than soliciting a correct answer based on the student’s memory of the material  Think–Pair Share –strategies engage students in thinking about their response first, and then allow students to discuss their ideas with a partner before sharing their ideas with the whole class.

25 Visual and Performing Arts Content Standard 3 rd grade 1.2 Describe how artists use tints and shades in painting. Learning Objective: When shown different color colors, students will be able to recognize tint from shade.

26 Tint/LightColorShade/Dark

27 6 TH Grade Physical Science Thermal Energy: So hot in here!! Students discover heat is conducted in a variety of ways. In this physical science lesson, students investigate various conductors of heat. Students explain their findings, and discover how energy is exchanged between objects through radiation. To conclude the lesson, students write predictions to questions prompted by the teacher.

28 After experimenting with conductors of heat, make predictions about the following materials as heat conductors. Think. Write you responses in your journal and discuss with a partner. Pair. Be prepared to then share with the class. Share.

29 Linking Real or Personal Experiences This technique allows students from varying academic levels and personal backgrounds to participate and share their experience to build a classroom experience. This technique also helps the teacher to assess "where the class is at or check for understanding."

30 Real Experience Before reading a short story where the main character experienced something frightening, ask students to free write about a time when he/she experienced something fearful. Then have students share vocabulary they used to describe their experiences. Make the link between students experiences with fear and the characters in the story.

31 Real Experience Elementary Social Studies: Topic of unit is Westward Movement. Teacher might ask the students, For those who have moved or had friends/family move: What steps must one go through to prepare to move? Why did you move? What were you sad about and happy about when you moved?

32 Anticipation/Reaction Guide Science Content Standard (8th grade): Students know that compounds are formed by combining two or more different elements and that compounds have properties that are different from their constituent elements. Learning Objective: Given examples, students will be able to identify whether a substance is a mixture or a compound.

33 Activating Prior Knowledge Preview  Science Example

34 Anticipation/Reaction Guide for Mixtures/Compounds Directions: Read the statements below and decide if you AGREE or DISAGREE with each statement. Write your answer underneath the "Anticipation" column. At the end of your lesson, write your answer underneath the "Reaction" column. Compare your answers? What did you learn? Anticipation Statement Reaction _______________ ____Raisin Bran Cereal is an example of a mixture__ ____________ _______________ ____ Vinegar is a mixture ______________________ _____________ TrueFalse True

35 English/Language Arts Content Standard: Expository Critique (Grade 5) – Identify facts, inferences and opinions Learning Objective: Through different reading examples, students will identify examples of opinions being used in expository writing.

36 Title: The Book of the Pig Author: Jack Denton Scott Grade Level: 4-6 Summary: This book dispels many myths about pigs and provides much information about their activities, the variety of breeds, and the many ways they serve people. Anticipation/Reaction Guide Anticipation Reaction Statement _________ ________ 1. Pigs are dirty animals. _________ ________ 2. Pigs serve no useful purpose. _________ ________ 3. Pigs are affectionate animals. _________ ________ 4. Pigs are stupid animals. _________ ________ 5. Pigs can be trained to do tricks. _________ ________ 6. Pigs are fussy about what they eat.

37 Give One, Get One ELA Standard: 3.3 Literary Response & Analysis (Grade 3) – Understand characters in literature Lesson Objective: Students will be able to list important characteristics about the main characters in a story. ` Write down a character you have read about from each of two different stories. For Example: Freckle Juice Character: Andrew

38 Give One, Get One Math Standard: Computing (Grade 7) – Calculate percent increase/decrease Lesson Objective: Given a math percentage problem, students will be able to calculate the increase in percentage. ` Create and solve a word problem in which you must compute a percentage. For Example: John wants to buy a DVD costing $ Today the store is having a 20% discount on all DVD’s. How much would John have to pay for the DVD? $10.00 x.20 = $2.00 $ $2.00 = $8.00 John would pay $8.00 for the DVD

39 Advance Organizers  Expository Advance Organizer  Narrative Advance Organizer  Skimming as an Advance Organizer  Graphic Advance Organizer

40 Graphic Organizer  Hierarchical organizers - main ideas and supporting details in ranking order  Comparative organizers - depict similarities among key concepts  Sequential organizers - illustrate a series of steps or place events in a chronological order  Diagrams - depict actual objects and systems in the real world (Marchand-Matella, et al., 1998),  Cyclical organizers - depict a series of events that have no beginning or end  Conceptual organizers - include a main concept with supporting facts, evidence, or characteristics (Bromley, et al., 1998).

41 Graphic Organizer Hierarchical organizers, present main ideas and supporting details in ranking order, Comparative organizers, depict similarities among key concepts, Sequential organizers, illustrate a series of steps or place events in a chronological order, Diagrams, depict actual objects and systems in the real world of science and social studies (Marchand-Matella, et al., 1998), Cyclical organizers, depict a series of events that have no beginning or end, Conceptual organizers, include a main concept with supporting facts, evidence, or characteristics (Bromley, et al., 1998). If you want to show……..Then use Series of itemsLists or sequential framework, cycle diagram A comparisonParrell lists, Venn diagram, t-charts Super ordinate/subordinateBranching, web diagram ClassificationWeb diagram, matrix, t-chart Data reportingGraphs/tables Part to wholePictures, branching Cause and effectFishbone, cycle diagram, flow charts, matrix Source: cgi- bin/cgiwrap/specconn/main.php?cat=instruction§ion=main&subsection=udl/graphic

42 Math Graphic Organizer Math Content Standard (6th grade): 2.4 Determine the least common multiple and the greatest common divisor of whole numbers; use them to solve problems with fractions (e.g., to find a common denominator to add two fractions or to find the reduced form for a fraction). Learning Objective: Students will create a definition for Greatest Common Factor.

43 Math Graphic Organizer Source: Greatest Common Factor Synonyms for the word GreatestSynonyms for the word Common Recall: Factors are numbers you multiply together to get another number. Any number can be divided by factors. In your group: Using the synonyms you identified above, create a definition for greatest common factor.

44 ELA Content Standard (3rd grade): 2.5 Distinguish main idea and supporting details in expository text. Learning Objective: Students will read a story, list supporting details, and identify the main idea.

45 Key Idea: Supporting Points: Key Idea: Supporting Points: Key Idea: Supporting Points: Key Idea: Supporting Points: The Main Idea: KEEP TRACK OF THE AUTHOR’S KEY IDEAS Show the key ideas in a selection by filling in the chart below as you read. When you finish reading, draw conclusions about the main idea. ELA Graphic Organizer Source:

46 KWL K What do you know? W What do you want to know? L What have you learned? Ogle, D.M. (1986, February). K-W-L: A teaching model that develops active reading in expository texts. The Reading Teacher 39(8),

47 Activation Prior Knowledge and English Learners Before teachers of English learners teach a lesson, it is important that they determine the extent to which students have prior knowledge about a certain topic. It's important that teachers also recognize that students' prior knowledge of a topic may be influenced by cultural practices from their home language and culture, and their prior knowledge may differ from the background experiences of the teacher.

48 The Three Pillars of English Language Learning Dr. Jim Cummins Their knowledge may not facilitate learning unless that knowledge is brought to consciousness. of the University of Toronto where he works on language development and literacy development of learners of English as an additional language

49 Sample lesson Students know rivers and streams are dynamic systems that erode, transport sediment, change course, and flood their banks in natural and recurring patterns. 1.Tell me what you know about rivers? Where have you seen a river? What did it look like? What did the land look like around the river? Have you been in a river before? What did the land look like around the river?

50 3. Let’s Brainstorm some questions that might help us answer questions we have about rivers and what they do to the land and how they might change the land. 2. Write about what you see in the pictures. Do the pictures look like the river you have seen? What does it look like the river is doing to the land? Where do you think the water came from? Why do rivers bend through the land? 4. Let’s identify some resources that might help us answer our questions.

51 What did we do? 1.Start with classroom activities about riddles & answer question about the main topic 2. Engage interest using visuals which allow students to engage prior knowledge 3.Quick write (from the picture & prior knowledge) 4.Brainstorm - what other unexplained mysteries do you know? 5.Write research questions that will lead to new information 6.Introduce information to support learning objective

52 Revisiting Our Learning Objectives  Participants will become familiar with the importance of Activating Prior Knowledge in lesson delivery.  Participants will be able to differentiate between examples and non-examples of appropriate questioning techniques for use in Activating Prior Knowledge.  Participants will be able to recognize Activating Prior Knowledge strategies and how to apply them in their own lessons.

53 Questions?

54 Next Webinar Focused Learning Through Direct Instruction Session Four: Lesson Importance and Checking for Understanding May 11, :30 PM – 4:30 PM Register on the Region 2 RSDSS website:

55 Contact Information Doreen Fuller (Shasta Hub Coordinator – serving Lassen, Modoc, Siskiyou, Shasta, and Trinity Counties): Patty Garrison (Butte Hub Coordinator – serving Butte and Plumas Counties): Lorna Manuel (Region 2, RSDSS Director and Tehama Hub Coordinator – serving Glenn and Tehama Counties):


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