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COLLEGE3PD20051 DEEL II FORMELE BENADERING: Wat is diagnostiek; diagnostisch proces? Hoofdstuk 4 en 5.

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Presentation on theme: "COLLEGE3PD20051 DEEL II FORMELE BENADERING: Wat is diagnostiek; diagnostisch proces? Hoofdstuk 4 en 5."— Presentation transcript:

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2 COLLEGE3PD20051 DEEL II FORMELE BENADERING: Wat is diagnostiek; diagnostisch proces? Hoofdstuk 4 en 5.

3 COLLEGE3PD20052 Reminding Part I : History, Controversy, Current situation Review book: I and II 3 x3 and III; Chapter 10: Quality Introduction: Assessment as “phenomenon” -Who is the client? -Who is the diagnostician/assessor? Chapter 1: Historical Review of Testing Movement Chapter 2: Controversy: Clinical vs Statistical prediction Chapter 3: Present: Assessment in theory and practice in the Netherlands Assessment: Part II Formal approach

4 COLLEGE3PD20053 What is Psychological Assessment? Page 29 (Ch. 1): preliminary definition  Inquiry, judgment of a client’s behaviors  In order to describe, diagnose, predict, explain (problematic) behaviors Chapter 4: A formal systematic definition, I.e., including all elements and relations of assessment  a comprehensive definition.

5 COLLEGE3PD20054 What is Psychological Assessment? 1.Assessment: No “own” formal and material object! No separate psychological discipline! 2. Current definitions stress a salient element, I.e., -individual differences and selection -decision process; problem solving -hypothesis testing model (HTM) 3. A comprehensive definition includes all elements and their relations!

6 COLLEGE3PD20055 PsychologicalAssessment Three inevitable elements, components: 1. Behavioral theories / constructs: e.g., intelligence, personality characteristics, deviant behavior 2. Models to depict these constructs: e.g., unidimensional scales to depict individual differences 3. Instruments: Tests, questionnaires

7 COLLEGE3PD20056 Relations between three components Six possible paths; Three familiar and important: 1.Theoretical / conceptual path: Conceptual analysis of behavior  measurement model  instrument/test 2.Practical path: Instrument  measurement model  theory/construct 3.Psychometric theory path: IRT model  instrument  behavioral construct.

8 COLLEGE3PD20057 COMPONENTsPERSPECTIVE S DOMEIN EN Folk Theories or Implicit Theories/ Concepts Or even “Theodicees ” (Swheder) Histo rical Philos ophic al Backg round Theor y of scienc e THEORY/ CONSTRUCT IND.DIFFE RENCES TYPICAL - MAX.PERFO RMANCE SITUATION ALTER- NATIVES DEVELOP MENT TYPICAL- MAX.PERFO RMANCE SITUATION ALTER- NATIVES CONTEXT/ ENVIRON MENT TYPICAL- MAX.PERFO RMANCE SITUATION ALTER- NATIVES MODEL/ MEASUREME NT INDIVIDU AL DIFFEREN CES TYPICAL- MAX.PERFO RMANCE SITUATION ALTER- NATIVES DEVELOP MENT TYPICAL- MAX.PERFO RMANCE SITUATION ALTER- NATIVES CONTEXT/ ENVIRON MENT TYPICAL- MAXIPERFO RMANCE SITUATION ALTER- NATIVES INSTRUMENT S: TESTS, SCALES, QUESTIONNA IRES INDIVIDU AL DIFFEREN CES TYPICAL- MAX.PERFO RMANCE SITUATION ALTER- NATIVES DEVELOPME NT ALTER- NATIVES CONTEXT/ ENVIRONME NT TYPICAL- MAXIMUM PERFORMAN CE SITUATIONER SOON PRESTATIE PLEK ALTER- NATIVES

9 COLLEGE3PD20058 Component 1: Theories /constructs Three perspectives to describe/explain “behaviors” (i.e., cognition, motivation, feeling, behavior): 1. Individual differences 2. Development 3. Context / adaptation Most theories/constructs in handbooks can be ordered in 1,2, 3. Try to order some familiar psychological constructs in 1, 2,3

10 COLLEGE3PD20059 Component 2: Models Depicting behaviors using measurement models: Specific role in assessment of : a. Classical Test Theory: model for estimating random errors in measurements. b. Item Response Theory: collection of IRF’s specifying the probability of an answer as a function of a latent “trait”. a.  model for errors: no content b.  (small) model for (tiny) content

11 COLLEGE3PD Component 3: Tests, questionnaires Typical performance Maximum performance Paper and pencil tests Multiple choice / open questions Objective Subjective /projective Observation/ talking with a client? Definition (Drenth & Sijtsma)

12 COLLEGE3PD Inleiding op diagnostisch proces: Video persoonlijkheidsonderzoek: Let op: Psychologische constructen Instrumenten Informatie integratie Betrokken subdisciplines Hoe, welke vorm zullen de adviezen hebben?

13 COLLEGE3PD What is the question? (See video “Personality Investigation” for the court) Not theory/construct per se; not CTT, or IRT or test or questionnaire, but Answering the question of a client The assessing professional needs knowledge of three components; moreover Assessment is a judgment process using information about the behaviors of a client and his/her environment. Chapter 5 the assessment process

14 COLLEGE3PD Assessment Process: Judges are fallible Defining failure implies criteria: –Rules of logic –Statistical rules: Cfr. clinical vs statistical prediction. Solution: Assessment is scientific research; sort of; resembles the empirical cycle

15 COLLEGE3PD Assessment Process The process is conducted according to the hypotheses testing model (HTM). The steps are described on page 155 and 156. One step is hypothesis testing. This model rules now (in Belgium and the Netherlands). Every judgment can be modeled as an information processing task Due to the work of Tversky and Kahneman we know failures in information processing

16 COLLEGE3PD Alternatives to the HTM Stressing the dialogue Rhetoric and argumentation A story with a plot: a good story –The experiment can also be modeled as a “romantic” story, let’s try.

17 COLLEGE3PD Modeling the assessment process Brunswik’s model Regression models Decision aids: MAUT en Bayes rule The assessment process is the core of assessment. Complex: three components; the process of information integration; probabilistic nature; information processing failures


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