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Systems Analysis And Design © Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman Contents MODULE 3 INFORMATION GATHERING 3.1 Strategy to gather information 3.2 Methods of gathering information 3.3 Case study –hostel information system 3.4 Systems requirements specifications 3.5 Classifications of requirements to operational,tactical,strategic
To obtain what an end user expects from the Information System the designer must gain complete knowledge of the organization’s working. The Information system designed for an organization must meet the requirements of the end users of the organization. It is important for the student to know the information gathering techniques so that no information is overlooked and the nature and functions of an organization are clearly understood MOTIVATION Systems Analysis And Design © Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 1 of 30 of module3
Information requirements are often not stated precisely by management The main purpose of gathering information is to determine the information requirements of an organization Analyst’s responsibility to prepare a precise Systems Requirements Specifications understood(SRS) by users MOTIVATION Systems Analysis And Design © Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman 2 of 30 of module3 SRS document is a vital document before starting a project
LEARNING GOALS Systems Analysis And Design © Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman Strategy to gather information for computerization. Various sources of information. Methods of searching for information. Interviewing techniques to gather information from line managers to top management. Methods of consensus for formulating requirements. 3 of 30 of module3
LEARNING GOALS Systems Analysis And Design © Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman Use of document flow diagrams to depict flow of documents in an organization Specification of Operational,Tactical and strategic information which will be provided by the system Use of dataflow diagrams to specify flow of records and how they will be processed to create reports 4 of 30 of module3
INFORMATION GATHERING STRATEGIES Systems Analysis And Design © Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman Use Information flow model of organization. Identify Information sources Evolve a method of obtaining information from the identified sources. 5 of 30 of module3
INFORMATION SOURCES Systems Analysis And Design © Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman Users of System Forms and Documents used in the organization Procedure manuals, rule books etc. Reports used by the organization Existing computer programs(If Any). 6 of 30 of module3
INFORMATION SOURCES Systems Analysis And Design © Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman Interviews are very important Use organization chart Understand the importance of the people who operate the system-Clerks,Line managers. Gather information from Middle level persons who have lot of experience Gather both qualitative and quantitative information & Observe how the organization works. 7 of 30 of module3
INFORMATION GATHERING METHODS Systems Analysis And Design © Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman Searching for information Individual Interviews Group discussions Several Interviews needed. 8 of 30 of module3
PLANNING AN INTERVIEW Systems Analysis And Design © Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman Make a list of people to be interviewed and in what order Plan and note down a list of questions to be asked Plan several interviews with same person-mainly to clarify doubts Interview groups as appropriate 9 of 30 of module3
INTERVIEWING TECHNIQUE SystemsAnalysis And Design © SystemsAnalysis And Design © V. Rajaraman Make appointment Allot time Read background material State purpose of interview Be punctual and pay attention to what user says Do not use computer jargon 10 of 30 of module3
INTERVIEWING TECHNIQUE Systems Analysis And Design © Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman Obtain both quantitative and qualitative Information Discriminate between essential and desirable requirements State what you understand and get it confirmed Do not prolong interview Summarize information gathered and get it checked by the interviewee 11 of 30 of module3
USE OF QUESTIONNAIRES Systems Analysis And Design © Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman Questionnaires useful for statistical data collection Useful when large number of persons have to respond Make questionnaires short Design questionnaires by enumerating objectives and data needed to meet the objectives Several follow-ups/personal interviews may be required to get questionnaires back from respondents 12 of 30 of module3
Systems Analysis And Design © Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman Existing system(If any) Systems in similar organization Observe workflow in workplace Case repository in own organization INFORMATION GATHERING OTHER METHODS 13 of 30 of module3
Systems Analysis And Design © Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATION System requirements specification specifies what Information requirements will be provided. It does not specify how the system will be designed SRS is obtained after excessive discussions with the user. Developing SRS is most important and difficult task of a Systems analyst 14 of 30 of module3
Systems Analysis And Design © Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATION Analyst examines the current system if any. Analyst finds out the shortcomings of the system as seen by the user. Analyst’s aim is to develop SRS which is understandable by the user and which can be used for detailed design of the system. How SRS is Developed 15 of 30 of module3
Systems Analysis And Design © Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATION Complete and Unambiguous. Specifies operational,tactical, and strategic information requirements Eliminates possible later disputes between users and Analyst Uses Graphical aids understood by users who are not computer literate and will also be useful in design. Jargon Free. Ideal characteristics of SRS 16 of 30 of module3
Systems Analysis And Design © Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman FROM WORD STATEMENT TO SRS Narratives of requirements by users too long and imprecise Needs conversion to precise specifications Step1: Analyse statement Step2: Identify physical entities such as vendors, receiving office, Inspection office etc. Step3:Identify documents which are received/sent by each office Step4:Draw a physical document 17 of 30 of module3
Systems Analysis And Design © Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman DEVELOPING A DOCUMENT FLOW DIAGRAM EXAMPLE WORD STATEMENT “Our company receives many items from several vendors each accompanied by a delivery note.A receiving office receives the item and checks the delivery note with corresponding order. Any discrepancy is reported to purchase office.The items received along with items received note (with details of items) is sent to the inspection office.” ENTITIES IDENTIFIED-Vendors,Receiving office,Inspection office DOCUMENTS IDENTIFIED-Delivery note,discrepancy note,Items Received note. Using these a document flow diagram is drawn 18 of 30 of module3
Systems Analysis And Design © Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATION Physical document flow diagram. Logical Data flow Diagram (abbreviated as DFD) Document flow diagram depicts various entities or offices & documents generated/transmitted by these entities Entities represented by Rectangles, Document flow by lines, direction is shown by arrows. Document flow lines are labeled by name of the document Dashed lines used to depict flow of physical items. Document flow diagram depicts various entities and documents generated and/or transmitted by these entities Graphical Specification Tools 19 of 30 of module3
Systems Analysis And Design © Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman DOCUMENT FLOW DIAGRAM Vendor Receiving Office Inspection office Purchase Office Delivery noteItems Received note Discrepancy note Delivered Items Entities in the Document flow diagram given above are Vendor, Receiving office, Inspection office and purchase office Documents are:Delivery note,items received note and discrepancy note Physical flows are delivered items 20 of 30 of module3
Systems Analysis And Design © Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman DOCUMENT FLOW DIAGRAM (CONTD) Vendor Receiving Office Inspection office Purchase Office Delivery noteItems Received note Delivered Items Discrepancy note Delivered Items The diagram is interpreted as follows: 1)Vendors deliver items to receiving office accompanied by a delivery note 2)Receiving Office sends items to inspection office along with an items received note 3)Receiving office sends discrepancy note to Purchase office ENTITIES: Vendor,Receiving office,Inspection office and purchase office DOCUMENTS : Delivery note,Items received note and discrepancy note 21 of 30 of module3
Systems Analysis And Design © Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman DATA FLOW DIAGRAM (DFD) DFD also has entities and data flows Besides this DFD specifies processing performed by some of the entities Data flow diagrams specify which entities generate documents Details of documents and their flow Processing performed by some entities Data stores which are referred while processing data and in which processed data may be written or stored 22 of 30 of module3
Systems Analysis And Design © Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman DATA FLOW DIAGRAM (DFD) Vendor Receiving Process Inspection Office Purchase Office Orders Delivery note Items Received note Discrepancy note Entities are, originators of data and “consumers” of data Vendor,Inspection office and purchase office are entities in the above diagram Data flows are delivery note,items received note and discrepancy note A circle is used to depict a process A pair of parallel lines depict a store 23 of 30 of module3
Systems Analysis And Design © Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman DATA FLOW DIAGRAM (CONTD) Vendor Receiving Process Inspection Office Purchase Office Orders Delivery note Items Received note Discrepancy note 1) Data in a store may be read by a process 2) Processed data may also be written in a store 3) Circles depicting process are detailed separately using “ Structured English Algorithms” Or decision tables 4) Data flows are expanded to detail the data elements 5) Contents of the data stores are also detailed 24 of 30 of module3
Systems Analysis And Design © Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman DATA ELEMENTS IN DATA FLOW & STORE Delivery note: Order no,Vendor code,Vendor name and address,Item name, Item code,Delivery date,Quantity supplied,units. Items Received note: Order no,Item name,Item code,Delivery date,quantity supplied,units. Discrepancy note: Order no,Vendor code,Vendor name and address,Item name, Item code,Order date, Delivery date,quantity supplied,units, excess/deficiency,No of days late/early. Receiving office order file Order no,Order date,Item name,Item code,Vendor code,Vendor Name and address,Quantity ordered,delivery period. 25 of 30 of module3
Systems Analysis And Design © Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman PROCESSING RULE English statement 1.Compare order no in delivery note with that in order file. If no match return item to vendor. 2.If order no matches then compare item codes, if no match return item to the vendor. 3. If order number matches compare qty delivered with quantity ordered. If excess or deficient send discrepancy note to purchase office. 4. If order number matches compare date of delivery with expected date.If late or early send discrepancy note to purchase office. 5.In case3 and case4 send items received note to inspection office The above statements are shown to the user for his approval. 26 of 30 of module3
Systems Analysis And Design © Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman OPERATIONAL,TACTICAL AND STRATEGIC INFORMATION For this simple examples are: OPERATIONAL: Automatic checking of delivery against order and create discrepancy note.Note discrepancy (if any) of each order. TACTICAL:Evolve vendor performance index based on discrepancy in supplies and quality inspection. STRATEGIC:Use performance index to decide proportion of order for an item to be placed with each vendor.Develop new vendors if all existing vendors performance are poor. 27 of 30 of module3
Systems Analysis And Design © Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman STEPS IN SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN Study current system Design Logical system New System model User stated requirements Physical document flow diagram Logical data flow diagram Feasibility document New logical DFD Data Dictionary Processing rules Descriptive Statement of Information 28 of 30 of module3
Systems Analysis And Design © Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman MODULARIZING REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATIONS SRS Document now consists of: Document flow diagrams(as many as needed). Data Flow Diagrams. Data elements of each data flow and Data Store SRS Document 29 of 30 of module3
Systems Analysis And Design © Systems Analysis And Design © V. Rajaraman MODULARIZING REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATIONS Processing rules carried out in each circle of DFD. A descriptive statement of operational,tactical,strategic information will be provided A data dictionary which consolidates all data elements in the document and data store. SRS Document ( Continued) 30 of 30 of module3
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