Presentation on theme: "What precisely are the effects of drinking and smoking on baby development during pregnancy?"— Presentation transcript:
What precisely are the effects of drinking and smoking on baby development during pregnancy?
SMOKING WHILE PREGNANT “Cigarette smoking is un- equivocally the largest and most important known modi- fiable risk factor for low birth weight and infant death."
NICOTINE Two components that cause harmful effects: carbon monoxide and nicotine. These two substances are able to be transported over placental membranes Carbon monoxide decreased oxygen delivery to the fetus Nicotine cardiovascular and central nervous system effects
NICOTINE EFFECTS Increase in spontaneous abortions seen in smoking women. Low birth weight increase in perina- tal (after 20 weeks gestation) and neonatal (in the first 28 days of age) mortality in smoking women.
Placental problems, such as: preterm delivery, fetal dis- tress, maternal coagulopathy and ischemic injur y to other organs Attention deficit hyperactiv- ity disorder (ADHD) have been identified in the children (mental retardation) Childhood cancer
DRINKING WHILE PREGNANT Alcohol is a toxin. When you drink alcohol, it rapidly reaches your baby across the placenta, via your bloodstream
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Babies with FAS tend to have: Facial defects Born small and to carry on being small for their age Learning difficulties Poor coordination Behavioural problems
Problems with your pregnancy Miscarriage premature birth. TOO MUCH DRINKING Increase the risk of your baby being stillborn
Some hard facts about smoking during pregnancy Common! – currently, % of pregnancies in the USA/ Europe Higher in young women: 45% of pregnant under- 20’s smoke 40% of emergency room asthma visits from children live with smokers Smoking doubles the incidence of premature birth, doubles the chance of stillbirth, doubles the chances of asthma or cot death Smoking increases the rate of cleft palate and deformities by 25%
Some hard facts about smoking while pregnant The foetus gets a higher dose of nicotine than the mother – and the nicotine targets the baby’s brain Nicotine damages the placenta and severely decreases blood flow to the baby Passive smoking increases the rate of stillbirth by 23% and increases the incidence of birth defects by 13%
Some hard facts about alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol is the number one cause of mental retardation in children Brain damage is permanent – memory, attention deficit, frontal cortical immaturity Recommended maximum limit of alcohol in pregnant women is 1 – 2 units of alcohol per week How much alcohol is a single unit?