Presentation on theme: "SMOKING WHILE PREGNANT"— Presentation transcript:
1What precisely are the effects of drinking and smoking on baby development during pregnancy?
2SMOKING WHILE PREGNANT “Cigarette smoking is un- equivocally the largest and most important known modi- fiable risk factor for low birth weight and infant death."
3NICOTINETwo components that cause harmful effects: carbon monoxide and nicotine.These two substances are able to be transported over placental membranesCarbon monoxide decreased oxygen delivery to the fetusNicotine cardiovascular and central nervous system effects
4NICOTINE EFFECTSIncrease in spontaneous abortions seen in smoking women.Low birth weightincrease in perina- tal (after 20 weeks gestation) and neonatal (in the first 28 days of age) mortality in smoking women.
5Placental problems, such as: preterm delivery, fetal dis- tress, maternal coagulopathy and ischemic injur y to other organsAttention deficit hyperactiv- ity disorder (ADHD) have been identified in the children (mental retardation)Childhood cancer
6DRINKING WHILE PREGNANT Alcohol is a toxin. When you drink alcohol, it rapidly reaches your baby across the placenta, via your bloodstream
7Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Babies with FAS tend to have:Facial defectsBorn small and to carry on being small for their ageLearning difficultiesPoor coordinationBehavioural problems
8Problems with your pregnancy Miscarriagepremature birth.TOO MUCH DRINKING Increase the risk of your baby being stillborn
9Some hard facts about smoking during pregnancy Common! – currently, % of pregnancies in the USA/ EuropeHigher in young women: 45% of pregnant under-20’s smoke40% of emergency room asthma visits from children live with smokersSmoking doubles the incidence of premature birth, doubles the chance of stillbirth, doubles the chances of asthma or cot deathSmoking increases the rate of cleft palate and deformities by 25%
10Some hard facts about smoking while pregnant The foetus gets a higher dose of nicotine than the mother – and the nicotine targets the baby’s brainNicotine damages the placenta and severely decreases blood flow to the babyPassive smoking increases the rate of stillbirth by 23% and increases the incidence of birth defects by 13%
11Some hard facts about alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol is the number one cause of mental retardation in childrenBrain damage is permanent – memory, attention deficit, frontal cortical immaturityRecommended maximum limit of alcohol in pregnant women is 1 – 2 units of alcohol per weekHow much alcohol is a single unit?