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Materials for Homogenous Hadron Calorimetry Marcel Demarteau Fermilab Internal Review August 2, 2010, Fermilab.

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Presentation on theme: "Materials for Homogenous Hadron Calorimetry Marcel Demarteau Fermilab Internal Review August 2, 2010, Fermilab."— Presentation transcript:

1 Materials for Homogenous Hadron Calorimetry Marcel Demarteau Fermilab Internal Review August 2, 2010, Fermilab

2 Introduction As demonstrated by the previous speakers, HH-calorimetry portends to be extremely powerful Next generation experiments demand the ultimate in precision and background rejection Total absorption hadron calorimetry is well positioned to significantly enhance the physics reach of future experiments But, significant R&D is needed to develop the right medium that meets the physics requirements The timescale of new experiments seems well matched with carrying out a well focused R&D program on the development of these new materials HHCAL Review, Fermilab, August 2, M. DemarteauSlide 2

3 History Investing in new calorimetry techniques has been done in the past KTeV: high-speed, high-resolution CsI EM calorimeter (1996) 3100 crystals, covering 2m x 2m 27 X 0 deep (50cm) Three crystal vendors: Horiba, Crismatec and Bicron Only Horiba was able to grow 50cm long crystals. Crismatec and Bicron has 25 cm long crystals that were glued together Tight mechanical tolerances were difficult to achieve simultaneously with the uniformity requirements Uniformity often required polishing and too much polishing would take the crystal out of mechanical spec. HHCAL Review, Fermilab, August 2, M. DemarteauSlide 3 2½x2½x50 cm 3 5x5x50cm 3 Horiba$4.78/cc$4.10/cc Crismatec$3.76/cc$2.80/cc Bicron$4.60/cc--

4 E760 / E835 Calorimeter Experiment to explore charmonium states through p-pbar annihilation Calorimeter was composed of 1280 lead-glass Čerenkov counters read out with photomultiplier tubes Spatial resolution of 9 mm obtained Energy resolution of 3.0%/√E + 1.5% HHCAL Review, Fermilab, August 2, M. DemarteauSlide 4 Fermilab Pub 90/190-E NIM A 519 (2004) 558–609

5 E760 / E835 Calorimeter Crystals were manufactured by Schott Glass Technologies, Inc. Duryea, Pennsylvania HHCAL Review, Fermilab, August 2, M. DemarteauSlide 5

6 History Some more recent examples are: OPAL: leadglass calorimeter L3: BGO EM calorimeter CMS: PbWO 4 calorimeter Dedicated efforts to develop the crystals HHCAL Review, Fermilab, August 2, M. DemarteauSlide 6 L3 OPALCMS

7 Requirements Goal: obtain high energy resolution through total absorption Requirements: simultaneous detection of Cherenkov and scintillation through wavelength and timing cut Specifications: 1. Clean separation of scintillation/Cherenkov light High transmittance down to UV (300nm) Scintillation at longer wavelength, ~500nm Relatively slow decay, ~100ns No short wave and fast decay scintillation 2. High density for short interaction length 3. Good Cherenkov light yield, 10pe/GeV 4. Modest scintillation light yield, 1000pe/GeV 5. Stable properties 6. Low cost HHCAL Review, Fermilab, August 2, M. DemarteauSlide 7

8 Material Search HHCAL Review, Fermilab, August 2, M. DemarteauSlide 8 Scintillators Inorganic Organic Single Crystals Ceramics Glasses Plastics Liquid Scintillators Oxides Halides A discipline in itself

9 Fluoride Scintillators … and many more varieties due to doping, e.g. Eu (Europium), Sm (Samarium), Tb (Terbium), Er (Erbium) doped PbF 2 HHCAL Review, Fermilab, August 2, M. DemarteauSlide 9 CrystalPbF 2 BaYb 2 F 8 CdF 2 CeF 3 LaF 3 :NdLaF 3 :CeBaF 2 Density g/cm3 7,787,06,386,165,89 4,88 Cut-off, nm (pure) <200 LY, Ph/MeV~100> Decay, ns 181,3-65/ , 27; 270 0,9 630 Lum, nm ~ > ; Woody, 96 Visser,92Moses,91Visser,92

10 Oxide Scintillators HHCAL Review, Fermilab, August 2, M. DemarteauSlide 10 CrystalPbWOCdWOZnWOCaWOCaWO:BiNBWOBGOGSOBSO Density 8,27,97,876,06 7,597,13 6,8 Cut-off, nm > > LY, Ph/MeV Decay, ns 5, μs - 9μs 4003, Emission, nm

11 Glasses HHCAL Review, Fermilab, August 2, M. DemarteauSlide 11

12 Material Development The materials for total absorption calorimetry need to be engineered to meet the specifications This is clearly NOT our task HHCAL Review, Fermilab, August 2, M. DemarteauSlide 12 Modify the absorption edge Optimize scintillation and Cherenkov Improve optical properties Address cost … Doping bonding Energy trans. fluorescence Heat treatment Composition

13 Collaboration HH-calorimetry needs the development of new materials It appears that there are no fundamental limits to count Cherenkov and scintillation photons There are many potential candidates, but systematic studies are absent The expected time scale for application is enough to develop new sensor material Affordable cost of detectors is a key problem for crystal technology and production Systematic collaborative R&D is of critical importance ! HHCAL Review, Fermilab, August 2, M. DemarteauSlide 13

14 Workshops To date, two workshops on HH-calorimetry organized: Shanghai, February 19, 2008 Exploratory discussions with companies and universities Beijing, May 9, 2010 Satellite meeting at the CALOR 2010 workshop Twelve detailed presentations on the subject Given the traction and interest of the community, an international organization committee to pursue the development of materials for HH-calorimetry has been formed before the 2 nd workshop: Marcel Demarteau, Steve Derenzo, Etiennette Auffray, Jun Fang, Alexander Gektin, Paul Lecoq, Michele Livan, William Moses, Adam Para, Yifang Wang, Marvin Weber, Tianchi Zhao, Ren-yuan Zhu HHCAL Review, Fermilab, August 2, M. DemarteauSlide 14

15 Workshops A third workshop is being planned as satellite meeting at the IEEE meeting in Knoxville, TN, October 31, 2010 Conveners of the 3rd HHCAL workshop: Paul Lecoq (CERN) Stephen E. Derenzo (LBL) Marvin J. Weber (LBL) HHCAL Review, Fermilab, August 2, M. DemarteauSlide 15

16 Consortium Formation of an HH-cal consortium BGRI (Beijing Glass Research Institute) Caltech CERN Fermilab IHEP (Beijing) Institute for Scintillation Materials (Kharkov) LBL (HEP and Materials Science) NingBo University SICCAS (Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Science) University of Washington All interested in collaborative R&D, each bringing specific expertise HHCAL Review, Fermilab, August 2, M. DemarteauSlide 16

17 LBNL For example, LBNL High-Throughput Facility for Scintillator Material Discovery High-Throughput Screening of Crystalline Powder and Solid Samples (Stephen Derenzo) LBNL Crystal Growth Facility (Edith Bourret-Courchesne) HHCAL Review, Fermilab, August 2, M. DemarteauSlide 17

18 LBNL High-Throughput measurements: 8 keV monochromatic X-ray beam diffractometry for synthesis verification 50 keVp white X-ray beam luminescence spectra scintillation luminosities nm optical excitation excitation and emission spectra quantum efficiencies nm reflectance band gaps (1.5 to 5 eV) 80 ps, 40 keVp pulsed X-rays decay times scintillation luminosities filters for wavelength selected decay times All with computer-controlled sample changers, bar code readers, and automatic data upload to a real-time database HHCAL Review, Fermilab, August 2, M. DemarteauSlide 18 Furnace Array

19 Fermilab’s Role Fermilab plays at least two critical roles: Scientific driver for the development of new materials Applications in new projects, such as the ILC, CLIC or MuC Application in high precision experiments ‘Client’ or ‘End-user’ of the new materials Characterization of new materials in real beam conditions (test beam) Feasibility of technology in realistic setups (arrays) Development of technology for use in experiments Development of Calibration Development of photo-readout Development of mechanical assembly … Fermilab is in the eminent position to take scientific leadership for high-energy physics applications of this technology HHCAL Review, Fermilab, August 2, M. DemarteauSlide 19

20 Summary The development of new materials for total absorption hadron calorimetry is a necessity Fermilab will not and cannot develop these materials Industry and other research institutions are very interested in carrying out the R&D for this development, as witnessed by the growing interest in this effort Fermilab is in the unique position to take scientific leadership, but requires us to demonstrate unambiguously that we are committed to developing the technology HHCAL Review, Fermilab, August 2, M. DemarteauSlide 20

21 Resources Needed Seed money for industry to start the development of new materials is needed. It is expected that this will be of the order of $50-$100k per year Note that there is an agreement that costs will be shared among the main stakeholders As for the scientific leadership, that will be support indirectly through support for the simulation, photo-readout and beam test efforts HHCAL Review, Fermilab, August 2, M. DemarteauSlide 21


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