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Daniel Bernoulli XXXXXXXXX December 15, 2005

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Daniel Bernoulli He was born in Groningen, Netherlands on Feb 8, 1700 He died on March 17, 1782 in Basel, Switzerland Went to college at Basel University at the age of 13 to study philosophy and logic

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Daniel Bernoulli He was one of the many mathematicians that evolved from his greedy, jealous family When Daniel’s book was published his father was the one that was trying to take the credit for the book, this went on until his father’s death

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Daniel Bernoulli’s Major Accomplishments His most important work was a book that was published in 1738 called Hydrodynamica Hydrodynamics was a term he invented His book contained for the first time the correct analysis of water flowing from a hole in a container

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Daniel Bernoulli’s Major Accomplishments Another one of his major accomplishments is Bernoulli’s Principle He won the Grand Prize of the Paris Academy 10 times, for topics in astronomy and nautical topics Another important aspect of his work that proved important in the development of mathematical physics was his acceptance of many of Newton's theories

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Daniel Bernoulli Studies

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Bernoulli’s Principle As the velocity of a fluid increases, the pressure exerted by that fluid decreases Bernoulli’s principle is used for many things in the world, including sports

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Bernoulli's Equation The Bernoulli equation states that, Where: points 1 and 2 lie on a streamline, the fluid has constant density, the flow is steady, and there is no friction.

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Bernoulli’s Explanation of a Curve Ball A spinning baseball has more air turbulence on top of the ball, producing slower air speed over the ball air moving under the ball accelerates and moves faster, producing less pressure on the bottom of the ball This occurs partly because of the relationship between the pressure of a fluid and its velocity The stitches on a ball actually make it curve The pitcher's fingers hold the ball along a seam so when the ball is thrown with a snapping motion it has topspin

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Picture of how The Curve Ball Works

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Uses of Bernoulli’s Principal Baseball is not the only sport that illustrates physics phenomena Football, soccer, bobsledding, hockey and others involve the use of energy, work, friction, and inertia Airplanes get a part of their lift from the use of Bernoulli's principle Race cars use Bernoulli's principle to keep their rear wheels on the ground while moving at high speeds.

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Bernoulli’s Research Bernoulli's research resulted in the first effective method of measuring blood pressure Fluid's pressure is determined by its velocity, the pressure decreasing as the velocity increase Bernoulli's research related pressure to the law of conservation of energy His research placed the behavior of fluids squarely within the realm of mathematical and mechanical physics

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Environment In Which Bernoulli Did Research Daniel Bernoulli did most of his research in Basel, Switzerland He did some of his work with Leonhard Euler who he lived with in Russia He also worked at St Petersburg Academy of Sciences with Leonhard Euler

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Hypothesis The hypothesis is if Daniel Bernoulli never came up with his research then people would not be able to check there blood pressure, sports wouldn’t be what they are if he did not figure out the principle.

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ACTIVITY 1: BE RNOULLI'S PRINCIPLE MATERIALS 2 tennis or ping-pong balls string masking tape PROCEDURE Attach one end of a string to a tennis or ping-pong ball with the masking tape. Do the same to the other string and ball. Hang the balls from a horizontal bar or a dowel rod. Place the balls at the same level and about 3 cm apart. Put your mouth between the two balls about two or three inches from them. What do you think will happen to the balls when you blow a steady stream of air between them? What did you observe?

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Activity 2: Fastball Egg Toss Materials raw eggs old bed sheets Procedure Hold a flat bed sheet at each of the four corners to provide a large target for the pitcher. Make a pocket in the bottom of the sheet by holding it up slightly Throw an egg into the sheet as fast and hard as you can. The object is to break the egg by throwing it into the sheet An egg cannot be thrown hard enough into a sheet to break the shell because the sheet, which transfers the momentum of the egg over a long period of time, greatly decreasing the force on the egg shell Compare what happens when momentum is transferred abruptly. Drop the raw egg on a solid surface. Now time is very short, making the force much greater

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References http://www.pbs.org/safarchive/4_class/45_pguid es/pguide_405/4545_bb.html http://www.pbs.org/safarchive/4_class/45_pguid es/pguide_405/4545_bb.html http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0807244.ht ml http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0807244.ht ml http://www.stetson.edu/~efriedma/periodictable /html/B.html http://www.stetson.edu/~efriedma/periodictable /html/B.html http://hyperphysics.phy- astr.gsu.edu/hbase/pber.html http://hyperphysics.phy- astr.gsu.edu/hbase/pber.html http://www.du.edu/~jcalvert/tech/fluids/bernoul.htm http://www.du.edu/~jcalvert/tech/fluids/bernoul.htm

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