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Global Environments.

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Presentation on theme: "Global Environments."— Presentation transcript:

1 Global Environments

2 Types of Global Environments
Research Exercise – There are many types of global environments. Choose three from the following list and identify their locations around the world: Highlight where these three environments are on a global map Outline characteristics of each type of environment chosen and explain the reasons for their location TR GF1 p54-55 Coasts Deserts Grasslands Mountains Polar Lands Rainforests Rivers Tundra Wetlands

3 You Tube Videos For homework Search for a videos on one of the environments that you have chosen i.e: Coasts – Deserts – Grasslands – Mountains -

4 You Tube Videos Polar Lands – Rainforests – Rivers – Tundra –
Wetlands –


6 Lingo List Key Word Definition Archipelago
A chain or cluster of islands Atoll A circular ring-shaped coral reef that nearly or entirely closes a lagoon Barrier reef A coral reef that forms to protect a lagoon or coastline from the ocean biodiversity The variety of all living things Calcium carbonate The chemical compound created by the coral polyp as it grows

7 Lingo List (more) Key Word Definition Coral bleaching
Where coral polyps expel multi-coloured zooxanthellae from their cells, making coral lose its colour, causing the reef to die Fringing reef A coral reef that forms close to an island or coastline Hard coral Corals that form calcium carbonate skeletons as they grow, giving reefs their structure Soft coral Corals with a small amount of calcium carbonate that they use to attach themselves to the reef Symbiotic relationship A mutually beneficial interaction between two living organisms

8 Lingo List (even more) Key Word Definition Zooplankton
Very tiny, drifting animals such as shrimp and small fish zooxanthellae Algae that grow in the tentacles of the coral polyp

9 What are Coral Reefs? Rainforests of the sea – providing homes for a wide variety of marine animals and plants The coral reef environment is very fragile, needing special conditions to grow and survive Exercise – locate coral reefs on a world map

10 Spatial Distribution Construct a pie graph that shows the share of reef area for countries around world using the following data: Country % of world total Indonesia 18 Australia 17 Philippines 9 France 5 Papua New Guinea Fiji 4 Maldives 3 Saudi Arabia 2 Marshall Islands India World’s Tropical Waters 33

11 Describe the coral reef environment & its adaptations
What are the conditions for coral growth? Water depth and clarity- shallow (approximately metres), clear water as coral requires sunlight to grow Water temperature – above 18 degrees celcius and below 32 degrees celcius. Temperatures above 32 degrees celcius cause the coral to die Salt water – coral need salt water to grow. Corals won’t grow near river mouths where rivers release fresh water into the ocean Exercise – draw and explain a simple coral ecosystem

12 Internet Research Describe the processes that operate in a coral reef:
Atmospheric Biotic Geomorphic Hydrologic

13 Nutrient cycling Coral reefs are made up of millions of individual animals called polyps. These give reefs their structure. One of the features of coral is the way it is able to get energy from the Sun through algae called zooanthellae. This one of the special relationships that exist in all reef environments

14 Nutrient cycling cont. Zooxanthellae are algae. They provide the base of the coral reef food web. 90% of the nutrients needs by coral polyps come from the zooxanthellae living within the coral Coral polyps are tiny, clear animals with white skeletons. They feed on zooplankton, which are tiny animals living in reef waters The skeleton of coral polyps is made of calcium carbonate which gives coral its shape

15 Nutrient cycling cont. In the symbiotic relationship between coral polyps and zooxanthellae, the wastes of the polyp are used by the zooxanthellae to grow, and the wastes of the zooxanthellae are used by the coral polyps to grow

16 Plant and animal adaptations
Anemones – grow best in shallow, sunlit water. They catch small fish by stinging and paralysing them with their tentacles. Its adaptation is that its stinging tentacles are covered in mucous so that it does not sting itself

17 Plant and animal adaptations cont.
Clown fish – a very aggressive fish known for defending their territory. While not immune to the stings of the anemone, the clown fish is able to coat itself in the mucous that covers the anemone’s tentacles and won’t get stung.

18 Plant and animal adaptations cont.
Parrot fish – parrot fish eat algae that grow on the reef. As they remove the algae, pieces of coral are removed as well, which the parrot fish then spits through its mouth and gills

19 Plant and animal adaptations cont.
Seahorse – living on coral reefs and sea grass beds they are well camouflaged. Seahorses eat small crustaceans such as shrimp and catch their prey by drawing water and prey into their tube-like mouths. One special adaptation is its ability to change colour to blend in with the background.

20 Why are coral reefs important?
Coral reefs are important because: They provide habitat for one quarter of all known marine fish species Protect the coast from wave attack and erosion Are a food source for much of the world’s population Contain medicines and cures for disease Provide income for many countries of the world through tourism

21 Uses of coral reefs Human threats to coral reefs occur due to the following uses of coral reefs: Trade in coral reef animals – cyanide is used to stun the reef fish in the wild so they can easily be removed from the coral. The cyanide kills the coral polyps. Fishing – overfishing removes fish stocks and does not leave a large enough population of fish to restock the area. It also alters the balance of the reef ecosystem Tourism – wastes from resorts can enter the surrounding water and increase nutrients in the water disturbing the balance of the reef and degrading the coral

22 Human issues involved in destruction of coral reefs
Coastal development – the growth of large cities along the coast places pressure on reefs as pollution from the urban areas enters the water and people exploit the resources of the reef Farming – also logging and clearing all lead to soil erosion which enters the ocean, encouraging algae and limiting sunlight to reach the coral polyps to allow them to grow, killing the reef Risk of destruction – range from low to medium to high and causes include overexploitation involving fishing and taking coral; coastal development; inland pollution from runoff; and marine pollution from shipping debris and oil leaks

23 Natural threats to coral reefs
Pest infestations – the crown-of-thorns starfish can cause severe damage. These star fish feed on algae and the increased food supply causes starfish numbers to increase, destroying the reef as they eat the coral polyps

24 Natural threats to coral reefs cont.
Tropical cyclones – this natural hazard can wash away coral cays due to their large waves and big tides Global warming – this can cause coral bleaching which is when coral dies as the ocean temperature increases and sea levels rise. This causes an imbalance in the symbiotic relationship

25 Human interaction with the coral reef environment
Coral reef destruction is a global issue: Globally, the United Nati0ons acts to protect and preserve these environments Regionally, governments can protect marine parks NGO’s rely on people to take action at a variety of levels including the local level by running campaigns, letter writing and gaining media attention to raise pressure to preserve coral reefs Individual action by learning about the corral reef environment and the threats to it and taking action in an informed way

26 You Tube Videos

27 Clickview Videos

28 Case Study: The Great Barrier Reef & the indigenous community
Teacher Resource GF1 p94-96 Research the Great Barrier Reef. In doing so: describe the interrelationship of coral reefs and the people who use them Discuss role of Indigenous Australians in protecting the GBR examine how individuals, community organisations and government actions are contributing to the current management of the Great Barrier Reef - research the Great Barrier Reef Management Plan Itemise the various uses of the Great Barrier Reef and the role of Government in the management plan research current problems with the Great Barrier Reef such as Crown of Thorns Starfish, Oil spills, sea level rise due to global warming

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