How do we even know its an animal? ___________: eating food then digesting it on the ________ of the organism. – Can start dead, alive or in pieces Cells held together by __________ (not cell walls) Do not have haploid living stages… reproduce sexually but ________________ ________________
Animal life cycle _______ Egg and sperm make _______ _________ Form _________ (single layer of cells in sphere) gastrula Form gastrula (sphere begins to _______________________ __________________) Gastrula _____________________ Gastrula divides into two (_____________________), and then three (_______________) cell layers/cavities that go on to produce different cavities and layers __________ ________________ Go on to become __________ (don’t look like the adult) and then undergo metamorphosis into different forms until they reach the ________________ Adults produce egg and sperm Monarch Butterfly Pupa… between larva and adult
Protists also gave rise to animals Remember that plants and fungus diverged BEFORE animals started forming The same process that changed Volvox into multicellular algae probably created animals as well ___________________________ ___________________________ ______________… this would look a lot like sponges and cnidarians (our first groups to study!!!)
Invertebrates Most animals, grouped because they have no backbone (not really a phylogenetic class) Include the phylums – Porifera (sponges) – Cnidaria – Platyhelminthes (flatworms) – Nematoda (roundworms) – Mollusca – Annelida (earthworms) – Arthropoda (arthropods and insects) – Echinoderms **Using your book find each of these phyla and list 3 facts about them (they can be their structure, life cycle, or members)
Porifera Probably arose from a colonial protist called choanoflagellate Known as sponges ____________________: water/ food drawn in through pores then sent out through the top Asymmetrical/ Radial symmetry? Can have one or more cavities Economic importance in bath products!
Cnidarians Include all kinds of jellyfish Can be in the form of a _______: cylinder with ‘arms’ projecting from one side Can be in the form of a __________: think jellyfish… umbrella like with streamers coming from the edges Commonalities: – __________________: Prey is pulled into the umbrella and digested within the animal – _______________: stinging portions of the tentacles that stun or kill their prey so they can be ingested. – _________________ giant Nomura's jellyfish off the coast of Japan on October 4, 2005.
Bilateral Symmetry Although the previous classes had radial symmetry most animals have bilateral symmetry Bilateral symmetry means the ____________________ _______________________ They have a clear _________________ _________________ And __________________ ___________________
__________: flatworms, flukes and tape worms Flatworms are ___________found in freshwater lakes and ponds ________ are __________ and their life cycle usually includes multiple hosts – Can infect humans with blood fluke disease Tape worms: _________________ __________________ and consume the partially digested food (no digestive tract of their own). _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ – Humans can be infected with Taenarhynchus when they eat infected rare beef
Body Cavities Most animals have a space between the digestive tract and their skin… this space is called a body cavity AKA _____________ – Allows for better movement (more flexible) – More resilient against pressure and damage – Helps circulate nutrients and oxygen Skinny or short animals do not need these cavities because all areas are capable of absorbing their own nutrients… _______________________ __________________________ (like the vascular system of plants)
Nematoda: Roundworms Among the most numerous species _____________________ Have a cuticle ____________are used as model organisms because they have the same kind, but simpler nervous system Roundworms can be deadly – _______________ in dogs Almost all species have the same body plan… very little diversity
Mollusks Have a distinct body plan – __________ muscle that they sit on for locomotion – Visceral mass: ________________ – Mantle: ______ form the shell… allows for excretion 3 major groups: – _____________: Snails, slugs, sea snails and sea slugs (hide in a shell, very colorful, only terrestrial) – ____________: clams, oysters, muscles, and scallops (have 2 hinged shells, sedentary, can open and snap shut when they sense predators or prey – _______________: squid (internal shell) and octopus (no shell). Built for speed and agility. Complex brains and organ systems, great predators. Giant octopus can be up to 17m and 2 tons!!!!
The segmented body _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________ is accomplished by segmenting Repeated segments of similar content allow for the whole body to be enervated, or kept clean (like separate entrance and exits for nutrients and waste in each segment) Segmentation ________________ – Insects have segments that grow legs, and some for wings – Human are segmented only in the vertebrae and associated muscles In all animals it allows _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________
Annelida Rigidly segmented body plan _____________________ – Ingest the soil and excrete lots of soil with mucus… give the soil nice texture for farming! _____________________ – Marine worms that have bristles to trap food as well as aid in gas exchange and waste disposal Leeches: – __________________________ with some notable exceptions that suck your blood! – Can be used in medicine to remove excess blood from flooded tissues after trauma http://www.vincentprat.info/wordpress/2006/07/12/remove-leeches/ Mouth of the bloodsucking medicinal leech Photo: EYE OF SCIENCE/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Arthropods ____________ : Hard outer ‘shell’ that protects the soft interior tissue Have jointed appendages (legs w/ joints) __________________because the exoskeleton cannot grow with them Segmented into three major pieces – ______ (senses), _______ (breathing apparatus and arms) and ____________ (intestine and legs) 5 classes – 1. Trilobite (fossil), – 2. arachnids (spiders), – 3. crustaceans (lobster and crab), – 4. centipede/ millipede, – 5. insects
Insects: a closer look Over a million species defined so far Broken into 7 orders based on their form and function – Incomplete metamorphosis: ________ ________________________ Orthoptera: crickets, praying mantises, cockroaches Odonata: dragonflies Hemiptera: true bugs… stink bug, water strider, bed bugs
More insects Complete metamorphosis:________ _______________________ _____________________ – Coleoptera: beetles (largest order in the animal kingdom) – Lepidoptera: Moths and butterflies – Diptera: mosquitoes, flies, and gnats – Hymenoptera: ants, bees, wasps. Complex social organization
Echinoderms Sea Stars: have arms that with tube feet that pull apart mollusks (a favorite food) Urchins: are spheres with spines for protection (or locomotion) and eat algae New evolutionary branch (separate from mollusks, annelids and arthropods) Include Sea Stars, Sand Dollars, and Sea Urchins Spiny exoskeleton Use a water vascular system for movement… can push out or suck in water to move along. (tube feet) (tube feet)