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Case of the Missing Pathogens Lindsay Pawlas, Laura Howland, Shagun Pawar, Lindsay Davis Katy Davies.

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Presentation on theme: "Case of the Missing Pathogens Lindsay Pawlas, Laura Howland, Shagun Pawar, Lindsay Davis Katy Davies."— Presentation transcript:

1 Case of the Missing Pathogens Lindsay Pawlas, Laura Howland, Shagun Pawar, Lindsay Davis Katy Davies

2 DNA Fingerprinting

3 DNA fingerprinting is used by law enforcement workers to determine if suspects were present at crime scenes, based on the DNA samples taken from the crime scene.

4 Fingerprint Examples

5 DNA samples can be gathered from blood, hair, skin, or semen.

6 Gel Electrophoresis

7 Gel electrophoresis is used to analyze DNA samples. STR (simple tandem repeats), repetition of units at a certain locus on chromosomes, are compared.

8 No two individuals have the same DNA sequence or the same set of STR repeats. Thus, If the STR repeats in a DNA sample of an individual and a DNA sample from a crime scene match, it’s likely that suspect is guilty.

9 These are the results of gel electrophoresis, which show that suspect three has the same STR repeats that were found at the crime scene. Thus, suspect three is possibly guilty.

10 ELISA Lab

11 ELISA tests detect small amounts of disease agents in samples such as body fluids. ELISA tests can be used in everyday life to test for West Nile virus, SARS virus, anthrax spores, and the presence of marijuana and cocaine.

12 Steps in an ELISA Test

13 The ELISA test shows that tube A was positive for the pathogen because the well turned blue. The + and - wells were the control wells. Since tube A contained a sample of suspect three’s body fluids, this means suspect three is carrying the pathogen. We know that the pathogen is smallpox.

14 Smallpox Smallpox is a virus caused by Variola major and Variola minor. Variola major has a mortality of rate of 35% while Variola minor as a mortality rate of 1%. The effects include scars and blindness. The dangers of smallpox include its use as a biological weapon. Once it leaves the laboratory, it will be exposed to communities. Since there is no vaccine or antibiotics for it in the American population, this contagious disease would spread very fast and kill many.

15 1.Incubation Period (Duration: 7 to 17 days) Not contagious, no symptoms, many people feel fine 2. Initial Symptoms: Prodrome phase (Duration: 2 to 4 days) Sometimes contagious, fever, malaise, head and body aches, vomiting. 3. Early Rash (Duration: about 4 days) Most contagious, rash emerges as small red spots on the tongue and in the mouth and spread to the rest of the body, rash continues to get worse 4. Pustular Rash (Duration: about 5 days) Contagious, bumps become tender Stages and Symptoms of Smallpox Disease

16 5. Pustules and Scabs (Duration: about 5 days) Contagious, the bumps scab 6. Resolving Scabs (Duration: about 6 days) Contagious, the scabs begin to fall off, leaving scars 7. Scabs resolved (Not contagious) All the scabs fall off

17 What We Already Know… Dr. Dangerkitty was involved in Dr. Donley’s death because through gel electrophoresis, we saw that his DNA sample matched the DNA sample found at the crime scene. Dr. Dangerkitty is involved with the pathogen smallpox, based on the results from the ELISA test.

18 Other Important Information The blood found at the party scene and on the insurance policy was O+. The blood found with the victim was O+ and B+. Since Dr. Donley has type O+, the individual involved with her death probably has type B+. Dr. Dangerkitty and Dr. Powers have B+ blood and thus, could be guilty.

19 Even though he has B+ blood, we can rule out the possibility of Dr. Powers because his DNA sample did not match that of the crime scene and the ELISA test didn’t show he was carrying the pathogen.

20 Dr. High is innocent because he has type B- blood, which was nowhere to be found at the crime scene. Also, when interviewed, he said he didn’t attend the party because he wasn’t invited. However, he looked in the windows of the party and blames Dangerkitty. This could very possible be because he saw Dangerkitty doing something suspicious. He also said that he is in love with Dr. Donley and that he wrote love letters to her. Although his fingerprints were found on goggles, that doesn’t make him guilty because he works in the lab and would therefore be using goggles.

21 Dr. Sheetburger is also believed to be innocent. There is no good evidence pointing towards him.

22 Dr. Walrus must have been involved because he has type O+ blood, which was the type found at the party scene and on the insurance policy. Also, when interviewed, he said he was there after the party, stealing stuff. If an individual wanted to steal stuff, they would look at someone’s insurance policy to find out what their valuables are.

23 Dr. Walrus is also working on a way to create a bacteria-virus hybrid. This means he has been studying ways to release diseases into populations. Since Dr. Dangerkitty was found with smallpox, we conclude that the two were working together. Also, Dr. Walrus admitted to having a grudge against Dr. Donley. This is another explanation for why he would want to be involved with killing and “getting rid” of her.

24 We conclude that the pet hair found on Dr. Donley’s lab coat was that of Dr. Walrus’ dog. Since he is connected to the murder, he must have been in Dr. Donley’s lab working on his bacteria-virus hybrid and brought his dog along with him.

25 Dr. Dangerkitty is guilty because one, in the gel electrophoresis, his DNA sample matched the DNA found at the crime scene. When interviewed, he said he wasn’t friends with Dr. Donley, so he wouldn’t have a problem with killing her. Also, he’s been jealous of her ability to acquire grant money. If she’s not there to try and get more grant money, then Dr. Dangerkitty will have a better chance of getting grant money.

26 Dr. Dangerkitty also said that he didn’t have any orange marmalade to drink. This is most likely because he poisoned it with cyanide and therefore, didn’t want to drink it.

27 He was also the only one who pointed out that he didn’t kill anyone. This is suspicious.

28 Dr. Dangerkitty pointed out that he likes scalpels. This is an unusual thing for a person to say. Overall, looking at the DNA samples, ELISA test, Monarch F.B.I Laboratory report, and interviews with the suspects, we have profound evidence that…

29 GUILTY


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