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DNA fingerprinting.

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Presentation on theme: "DNA fingerprinting."— Presentation transcript:

1 DNA fingerprinting

2 Historical background
DNA fingerprinting was developed in 1984 by Alec. J. Jeffrey at the University of Leicester He was studying the gene of myoglobin. This is a picture of Alec. J. Jeffrey

3 What is DNA Fingerprinting?
The chemical structure of everyone's DNA is the same. The only difference between people (or any animal) is the order of the base pairs. The information contained in DNA is determined primarily by the sequence of letters along the zipper. Structure of DNA

4 KEY CONCEPT DNA fingerprints identify people at the molecular level.

5 A DNA fingerprint is a type of restriction map.
DNA fingerprints are based on parts of an individual’s DNA that can by used for identification. based on noncoding regions of DNA noncoding regions have repeating DNA sequences number of repeats differs between people banding pattern on a gel is a DNA fingerprint

6 DNA fingerprinting is used for identification.
DNA fingerprinting depends on the probability of a match. Many people have the same number of repeats in a certain region of DNA. The probability that two people share identical numbers of repeats in several locations is very small. (mother) (child 1) (child 2) (father)

7 Several regions of DNA are used to make DNA fingerprints.
Individual probabilities are multiplied to find the overall probability of two DNA fingerprints randomly matching. ,400,000 1 chance in 5.4 million people x = Several regions of DNA are used to make DNA fingerprints.

8 DNA fingerprinting is used in several ways.
evidence in criminal cases paternity tests immigration requests studying biodiversity tracking genetically modified crops

9 The different sequence
segments that vary in size and composition and have no apparent function are called minisatellites The different sequences is the same as the word "POST" has a different meaning from "STOP" or "POTS," even though they use the same letters. i

10 Using these sequences, every person could be identified solely by the sequence of their base pairs
there are so many millions of base pairs, the task would be very time-consuming Instead, scientists are able to use a shorter method, because of repeating patterns in DNA. These patterns do not, however, give an individual "fingerprint," they are able to determine whether two DNA samples are from the same person, related people, or non-related people.

11 DNA Fingerprinting using VNTR's
On some human chromosomes, a short sequence of DNA has been repeated a number of times. the repeat number may vary from one to thirty repeats these repeat regions are usually bounded by specific restriction enzyme sites cut out the segment of the chromosome containing this variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR's ) identify the VNTR's for the DNA sequence of the repeat.

12 Making DNA Fingerprints
DNA fingerprinting is a laboratory procedure that requires six steps: 1: Isolation of DNA. 2: Cutting, sizing, and sorting. Special enzymes called restriction enzymes are used to cut the DNA at specific places

13 3: Transfer of DNA to nylon. The distribution of DNA pieces
is transferred to a nylon sheet by placing the sheet on the gel and soaking them overnight. 4-5: Probing. Adding radioactive or colored probes to the nylon sheet produces a pattern called the DNA fingerprint.

14 4-6: DNA fingerprint. The final DNA fingerprint is built by using several probes (5-10 or more) simultaneously.

15 Practical Applications of DNA Fingerprinting
1.Paternity and Maternity : person inherits his or her VNTRs from his or her parents Parent-child VNTR pattern analysis has been used to solve standard father-identification cases Can someone tell me who is my father?

16 2. Criminal Identification and Forensics
DNA isolated from blood, hair, skin cells, or other genetic evidence left at the scene of a crime can be compared FBI and police labs around the U.S. have begun to use DNA fingerprints to link suspects to biological evidence – blood or semen stains, hair, or items of clothing

17 3. Personal Identification
The notion of using DNA fingerprints as a sort of genetic bar code to identify individuals has been discussed 4.Diagnosis of Inherited Disorders diagnose inherited disorders in both prenatal and newborn babies These disorders may include cystic fibrosis, hemophilia, Huntington's disease, familial Alzheimer's, sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, and many others.

18 5.Developing Cures for Inherited Disorders
By studying the DNA fingerprints of relatives who have a history of some particular disorder identify DNA patterns associated with the disease 6.identification of Chinese medicine The Hong Kong Baptist University was able to use DNA fingerprinting to identify the Chinese medicine—Lingzhi in 2000

19 Considerations when evaluating DNA evidence
In the early days of the use of genetic fingerprinting as criminal evidence, given a match that had a 1 in 5 million probability of occurring by chance the lawyer would argue that this meant that in a country of say 60 million people there were 12 people who would also match the profile.

20 2. Problems with Determining Probability
A. Population Genetics VNTRs, because they are results of genetic inheritance it will vary depending on an individual's genetic background

21 B. Technical Difficulties
Errors in the hybridization and probing process must also be figured into the probability Until recently, the standards for determining DNA fingerprinting matches, and for laboratory security and accuracy which would minimize error

22 When evaluating a DNA match, the following questions should be asked:
-Could it be an accidental random match? -If not, could the DNA sample have been planted? -If not, did the accused leave the DNA sample at the exact time of the crime? -If yes, does that mean that the accused is guilty of the crime?

23 A Kid’s set of apparatus for DNA fingerprinting, What does it mean?

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