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1 Estados Unidos Mexicanos AP Comp Government 2014-2015

2 Social capital refers to the institutions, relationships, and norms that shape the quality and quantity of a society's social interactions. Increasing evidence shows that social cohesion is critical for societies to prosper economically and for development to be sustainable. Social capital is not just the sum of the institutions which underpin a society – it is the glue that holds them together,,contentM DK:20185225~menuPK:418213~pagePK:148956~piPK:216618~theSitePK:401015,00.html social capital is the expected collective or economic benefits derived from the preferential treatment and cooperation between individuals and groups. Although different social sciences emphasize different aspects of social capital, they tend to share the core idea "that social networks have value". Just as a screwdriver (physical capital) or a university education (cultural capital or human capital) can increase productivity (both individual and collective), so do social contacts affect the productivity of individuals and groups

3 43 students killed Pictures.... Video: missing-students-mexico-new-questions-surface-n278171 missing-students-mexico-new-questions-surface-n278171 Mayor Missing-students-are-dead-but-many-questions-remain-video Missing-students-are-dead-but-many-questions-remain-video Social media 30294010 30294010 3

4 Mexico’s new government The new president believes that he has broad political agreement to change his country 4 Dec 8th 2012 | MEXICO CITY |From the print editionFrom the print edition “IT IS time to get Mexico moving,” declared Enrique Peña Nieto (pictured) on December 1st in his first speech as the country’s president. As an audience of politicians and diplomats stood to applaud his inaugural address in the national palace, masked youths smashed the windows of banks and hotels a few blocks away. The Alameda park, recently reopened after a $20m facelift, was daubed in graffiti denouncing the new government.

5 See: Mexcio’s president sworn in in pictures america-20570389 Video of protests america-20571510 america-20571510 5

6 Nominee Andrés Manuel López Obrador Enrique Peña Nieto Josefina Vázquez Mota PartyPRDPRIPAN Home stateTabasco State of MexicoMexico City 6 See: Mexico party selects first woman presidential candidate The 2012 presidential election

7 The electoral system 7 Monday, 10 a.m.

8 Enrique Peña Nieto of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) won the Mexican presidential election of 2012, with a plurality of 38 percent of the vote, returning to power the party that for 71 years ruled Mexico as a one-party state. His victory was largely a result of failures of out-going President Felipe Calderón of the National Action Party (PAN) who led the nation into a war with the drug cartels that took 60,000 lives, persecuted independent unions, and presided over a stagnating economy that grew less than 2 percent over a decade. With the Mexican financial and corporate elite throwing its weight behind him, and the major media promoting him, the youthful Peña Nieto campaigned and won as the leader of a new PRI promising democracy and reform. Andrés Manuel López Obrador, presidential candidate of the left in 2006 and again in July of 2012, has once again refused to recognize the decision of the Electoral Tribunal which upheld the victory of Peña Nieto. Contending that the PRI bought millions of votes, “trafficking with the poverty of the people,” 8

9 Mixed Results and geographic cleavages 9 While the PRI won the presidency, the PRD remains a force in Mexican politics, having captured Mexico City and many new congressional seats. The statistics in the presidential, congressional and state elections provide a complex picture of Mexico’s kaleidoscopic political voting patterns. With 63.02% of registered voters participating in this election, Peña Nieto received 38.2 percent of the vote and López Obrador 31.6 percent, with a 6.6 percent difference between the two, equivalent to 3.3 million votes. Josefina Vázquez Mota, candidate of the rightwing PAN received 26 percent of the vote. Peña Nieto, his victory having been upheld by the Tribunal on August 31, will take office on December 1, returning to power the party that ruled Mexico continuously from 1929 to 2000 through notoriously authoritarian, corrupt, and often violent methods.

10 Legislative election results 10 Senate Composition by Party

11 Ooh look gubnatorial results 11

12 12 A general election was held in Mexico on Sunday, July 1, 2012. Voters went to the polls to elect, on the federal level: A new ___________ to serve a six-year term, replacing _____________ _____________(ineligible for re-election under the 1917 _____________). 128 members (three per _______by first-past-the-post and 32 by proportional representation from national partylists to serve six-year terms in the Senate. In each state, two first-past- the-post seats are allocated to the party with the largest share of the vote, and the remaining seat is given to the first runner-up. 500 members (300 by the _________ _____ _____ ____system and 200 by______________ ______________) to serve for a three-year term in the ____________ __ ____________

13 Analysis by the Economist view/2012/07/mexicos-presidential- election-results 13

14 14 Huge Constitutional Change in Pena Nieta’s first term: No more nonrelection principal for legislature Energy Reform

15 15 Presidential Election 2006 The Result... BBC July 7, 2006 This should help you REALLY get what it means to have this kind of electoral system

16 16 Mexico City is Mr Lopez Obrador's most passionate constituency BBC July 9 2006 Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador may have lost the vote counting after the 2 July presidential election in Mexico. But he is still the big winner on the streets of the capital city. Hundreds of thousands of enthusiastic Lopez Obrador supporters crammed into the square known as Zocalo, in the heart of Mexico City's historic central district on Saturday. There was no empty space, save behind a few huge banners that blocked the view of the stage. Men, women and children cheered wildly and waved yellow flags. They chanted the name of the man they believe won last week's election. Lots of Protest...

17 17 The Mexican president-elect, Felipe Calderón, accepted cheers Tuesday at his party’s headquarters in Mexico City. NYT Sept 5 2006 Sept 6 2006 Federal Electoral Tribunal declares a winner Mexico's top electoral court has rejected claims July's presidential election was riddled with fraud. The judges said a partial recount of votes had not changed the original result, which gave narrow victory to conservative candidate Felipe Calderon. In their final ruling on Tuesday, the judges concluded Mr. Calderón won the election by a mere 233,831 votes out of 41.5 million cast, a margin very close to the official tally done in early July.

18 18 About 100,000 people crowded into Constitution Plaza in Mexico City on Monday to watch Andrés Manuel López Obrador swear himself in. Yes, He Lost Mexico’s Vote, So He’s Swearing Himself In NYT Nov 20 2006

19 19 Legislators scuffled in Congress before bodyguards ushered in Felipe Calderón to be sworn in as president. NYT Dec 1, 2006

20 20 As allies applauded and opponents jeered, Mr. Calderón, in sash, beside his predecessor, Vicente Fox, took his oath and left

21 21 To be eligible to serve as president, Article 82 of the Constitution specifies that the following requirements must be met: Be a natural-born citizen of Mexico ("mexicano por nacimiento") with at least one parent who is a natural-born citizen of Mexico. Be a resident of Mexico for at least twenty (20) years. Be thirty-five years or older at the time of the election. Not be an official or minister of any church or religious denomination. Not be in active military service during the six months prior to the election. Not have been president already, even in a provisional capacity

22 22 Political and Economic Change (acorn point) Political Liberalization.... Economic Liberalization.... Define them

23 23 Mexico and Russia have each experienced economic liberalization and political liberalization. (a) Define economic liberalization and define political liberalization. (b) Describe one economic liberalization policy pursued in Mexico since 1985 and one economic liberalization policy pursued in Russia since 1991. (c) Describe one political liberalization policy undertaken in Mexico since 1985 and one political liberalization policy undertaken in Russia since 1991. (d) Compare one consequence of economic liberalization on social class in Mexico with one consequence of economic liberalization on social class in Russia.

24 24 One point is earned for a correct definition of economic liberalization, and 1 point is earned for a correct definition of political liberalization. An acceptable definition of economic liberalization is: Less government regulation of the economy and greater participation of private entities (free markets, reducing state control over markets, pricing, employment, property, distribution). Reducing government intervention in the economy. An acceptable definition of political liberalization is: Increasing citizen rights and liberties. Minimizing government supervision of society/individuals. Note: The definition “becoming more capitalistic/democratic” is not enough to earn a point.

25 25 Institutions: Party system Under PRI: “one party dominant” (contrast to China) Means opposition parties were tolerated and held seats But PRI maintained key positions and co-opted opposition Now 3 party system (though even more represented in Congress) but two party in most of the country: North and West—PAN vs PRI; South and West PRI vs PRD, Mexico City all three

26 26 pri Inclusive party with no clear ideology Founded in 1929, become increasing indistinguishable from the state P

27 PRI CONTROL “ CONSENT....but also Co-optation, corruption and if all else failed coercion” 27

28 Cooptation involves the use of persuasion or concessions to win over potential adversaries. Groups or individuals are often said to have been coopted when they receive tangible benefits in exchange for some form oF tacit or explicit concession on their part. In Mexico, cooptation took a variety of forms during PRI’s hegemony. For example, party leaders often awarded important political and bureaucratic posts to political opponents within the PRI; in exchange, the internal opposition might offer its support or simply refrain from an outward challenge against the party. It was also common for the government to grant concessions to critics outside the regime. In such instances, the demands of the interest group, political party, or neighborhood might be partially met (e.g., with a subsidy or government contract, greater revenue or representation, or a public works project, respectively), with the understanding that this was as far as the government was willing to go. 28

29 corporatism in perpetuating PRI rule –Definition of state corporatism a system of interest representation in which certain groups are officially recognized by the state in exchange for acceptance of state control or limits on their expression of interest and demands In contrast to pluralism –a system of interest representation in which groups can freely form to press their interests without limitation

30 30 CorporatismPluralism Single “peak” assoc. reps a societal interest Compulsory/universal membership Central organization Groups systematically involved in making and implementing policy State grants “favored status” Multiple groups can rep. a single interest Non-compulsory membership Decentralized organization Clear sep IG/govt In competition among groups for policy not all groups equal

31 Corporatist organizations under the PRI –Organizations Confederation of Mexican Workers National Peasant Confederation National Confederation of Popular Organizations

32 Corporatist organizations under the PRI –Example: Confederation of Mexican Workers Recognized by PRI; independent unions denied permission to organize Agreed to limit demands –Limits on wage increases, limits on grievance procedures, limits on right to strike Leaders of official federations rewarded by PRI –1980s-90s: 14-22% of Congress: Confed. of Mex. Workers

33 33 Corporatist system breaks down in 1990s—rising civil society and opposition parties give alternatives economic crisis means less money for patronage, pork, electoral competition now more pluralist

34 patron-client relations –PRI politicians as patrons Demanded votes Provided access to government resources –Workers/peasants as clients Voted for PRI in exchange for resources Examples –Workers »Subsidized housing, healthcare –Peasants »Ag price supports, special credit programs for farmers

35 Breakdown of patron-client relations –Economic crises in 1980s & 90s Instituted wage freezes for Confederation workers Abolished price supports for agricultural products Ended special credit programs for farmers

36 36 PRI CONTROL Electoral fraud : stuffing ballot boxes, disqualifying opposition party poll watchers, relocating polling places at the last minute to sites known only to PRI supporters, manipulating voter registration lists, padding them with nonexistent or non resident PRI supporters or “shaving off” those who were expected to vote for opposition, giving multiple voting credentials to PRI supporters, confiscating credentials of opposition voters, or buying them for material benefits, organizing carruseles (‘flying brigades”) of PRI supporters transported by truck or van to vote at several different polling places. held majority representation in state and local government entities that controlled vote counting and certification—most common was to add votes for PRI (instead of taking away from opposition) so that sometimes total number of voters exceed total number of registered voters or even adults

37 37 Electoral Reforms of 1990s What: When: in 1993-1994 and 1996, Salinas govt Why: build up domestic and international credibility for 1994 elections How: high tech, photo id cards issued to entire 42.5 million person electorate Federal Electoral Institute strengthened, given more autonomy, PRI denied a majority Independent tribunals to investigate, special prosecutor to investigate violations of electoral laws, new electoral crimes defined Legalized international observers and independent Mexican citizens observers formally recognized Exit polls authorized and publicly announced on election night Ceilings on contributions increased public funding for all parties Threshold for PR: 2%

38 38 PAN Founded in 1939 in response to leftward drift of Cardenas; oldest opposition party center-right, with strong elements of Christian socialism Who supports: northern border states and north central states, NOT rural Victory for Fox 2000

39 39 Political change... A contest and a “not PRI” president

40 Mexico, Voting In New Leader, Begins Political Sea Change, July 4, 2000 "All the parties are going to have to relearn the art of making politics," said Carlos Elizondo Mayer-Serra, a political scientist. "The fundamental pillars of Mexico's political system have changed." Watershed Election for Mexico June 2000 LA TImes

41 41 Definition of Watershed Moment [Figurative meaning] A critical turning point in time where everything changes that will never be the same as before Additional Information A figurative meaning comes from the literal meaning of a point-or division in a river or a stream where the river is split into two paths that will never intersect again

42 Nominee Andrés Manuel López Obrador Enrique Peña Nieto Josefina Vázquez Mota PartyPRDPRIPAN Home stateTabasco State of MexicoMexico City 42 See: And of course loss in:

43 43 Party of the Democratic Revolution formed: In 1980s a leftist faction in PRI, led by Cardenas, son of former president, left PRI and formed PRD Opposes neo-liberal reforms and neglect of poor Mexicans, calls for more nationalist and protectionist policies who supports: Mexico City and the south Andrés Manuel López Obrador campaigning last week in Tehuantepec on a swing through Oaxaca State. NYT March 19, 2006

44 44 THE worst are full of passionate intensity,” W.B. Yeats declared of religious zealots. The same might be said of Andrés Manuel López Obrador who, nearly three months after Mexico's presidential contest, still refuses to accept that he lost. On September 16th, Mexico City's former left-wing mayor declared himself president-elect and vowed to set up a rival government to that of Felipe Calderón, victorious candidate of President Vicente Fox's National Action Party (PAN). Mr Calderón was officially proclaimed the election winner by the federal electoral tribunal on September 5th after a series of legal challenges and a partial recount that put him just 233,831 votes ahead Another contest 6 years later

45 45 Mexico City Legalizes Abortion Early in Term MEXICO CITY, April 24 2007 — The Mexico City legislature approved a bill Tuesday to make abortion legal during the first three months of pregnancy, a watershed vote that set the stage for court battles and social clashes between religious conservatives and liberals.... Proponents of the law say they hope it will become a model for states in Mexico, most of which only allow abortion under conditions like rape or danger to the mother’s health. Many on each side of the issue predicted it would ultimately be challenged on constitutional grounds before the Supreme Court. Opponents said they would challenge it on the grounds that there was a prohibition in the Mexican Constitution against the death penalty that could be broadly interpreted to grant the right to life to unborn children. Supporters of the vote argue that in 2002 the Supreme Court ruled that abortion was legal in circumstances like rape and incest, and therefore they say it is unlikely that the court would agree to overturn the new law.

46 46 Institutions: Federalism 31 states and the Federal District (Mexico City) State governors elected for six-year terms; each state has a local (unicameral) legislature and a governor elected for 3 year terms and has the right to levy state- wide taxes each state divided into “municipios” (like our counties) governed by councils, headed by a mayor

47 47 Institutions: Judicial Branch Structured like US with a Supreme Court and courts at local and state level 11 Sup Ct justices, nominated by Pres for 15 year terms; approved by Senate Powers—under PRI—not independent; public perception judicial system still corrupt, esp. at local level new reforms in 1996 give Supreme Court judicial review; now more assertive

48 48 Protesters placed crosses on Mexico City’s main square to represent 12,500 abortions since the city legalized them last year. Mexico Court Is Set to Uphold Legalized Abortion in Capital

49 49 Mexican President Vicente Fox has accused the main opposition party of blocking progress by denying him permission to travel to the United States and Canada. BBC April 2002 Fox is told he travels too much

50 50 September 23, 2008 Mexican President Enjoys Newfound Freedom to Fly By MARC LACEYMARC LACEY MEXICO CITY — On his way to New York for the United Nations General Assembly meeting on Tuesday, President Felipe Calderón of Mexico will hop on his presidential jet for the very first time without having to ask permission to fire up the engines and go. Until the Constitution was changed over the summer, Mexican presidents had to seek approval from their nation’s Congress every time they sought to touch a toe on foreign soil. If the Congress was in an ornery mood, as it was during former President Vicente Fox’s term, it could — and sometimes did — say no. Twice, Mr. Fox was embarrassed when lawmakers told him he could not leave the country. The first time came during a low point in his relations with Congress in 2002, when a trip to the United States and Canada had to be scratched. Soon after, a planned trip to Australia was grounded because the president’s critics suggested that Mr. Fox was going there to visit his daughter. A stop in Vietnam for the annual Asia- Pacific Economic Cooperation summit meeting was rejected as well. When Mr. Calderón took office in 2006, after a hard-fought election that ended in a virtual tie, many speculated that he would spend much of his six-year term stuck in Mexico. After all, his National Action Party lacks a majority in Congress and some opposition lawmakers do not even recognize him as the country’s legitimate president.... And the constitutional change, which passed Congress, albeit with plenty of opposition, means that only presidential treks of more than a week will require the president to approach lawmakers with hat in hand. Foreign Minister Patricia Espinosa has said the change will allow more flexibility in presidential travel and “increase and strengthen the country’s work overseas.” add to

51 51 Mexico ends decades-long ban on re-election MEXICO CITY — USA TODAY Jan 2014 Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto on Friday overhauled a decades-old election system for legislators that forbid second terms, a ban critics said resulted in elected lawmakers having little incentive to do their jobs. "By not having re-election in Mexico, citizens have consistently voted for promises, instead of (politicians') job performance," says Fernando Dworak, independent political analyst in Mexico City. "Re-election doesn't resolve anything on its own, but it gives incentives so that better decisions can be made," he says, adding that Costa Rica is the only other democracy in the hemisphere with prohibitions on re-election. At the legislative level, an old axiom in Mexico says lawmakers spend the first year learning the ropes, the second year doing their jobs and third year seeking another position — with many taking leave to do so. Dworak and others say voters have been unable to punish or reward politicians for their performance in office because of a ban on re-election that goes back to the 1920s. That has resulted in an emphasis on short- term planning by public officials who rarely proposed projects that would not be completed during their three-year term.

52 52 In Congress, Dworak says, few lawmakers spend enough time in office to become expert in any areas such as finance, security or foreign policy — unlike their U.S. counterparts. The new rules, signed into law by Peña Nieto, allows legislators in the lower house of Congress to serve up to four consecutive terms, with elections being held every three years. Senators will now be allowed to serve a pair of six-year terms. The president, state governors and mayor of Mexico City are still limited to a single term of six years. State legislatures are able to approve re-election for mayors, but it's uncertain how many will do so.... The lack of re-election has also permitted political party bosses to control politicians' careers, Dworak says, as lawmakers followed instructions from their unelected superiors, instead of constituents, and could be kept off of the ballot in future races as punishment for falling out of line.

53 53 "Without immediate re-election, lawmakers respond to those who are going to give them their next job," Dworak says. The Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI,) ruled for 71 straight years until being unseated in 2000 and based some of its legitimacy on opposing re-election, even though its bosses decided who could run and who could not. The new rules still allow party bosses to control ballot access: Politicians can seek re-election only with the political party they ran for in their first campaign and cannot switch sides or run as an independent.

54 54 The introduction of re-election comes as part of a broader political and electoral reform, demanded by the opposition National Action Party (PAN) in exchange for supporting an opening the country's previously closed energy industry. The energy reform was approved in December — despite being a touchy topic in Mexico, where public ownership of oil has represented sovereignty and self-respect for many Mexicans and the 1938 expropriation of the industry was seen as a seminal moment. The political-electoral reform also allows for the formation of coalition governments, obligates parties to nominate women for 50% of the candidacies in legislative races and requires political parties to receive 3% of the vote each election to remain registered.

55 RankCountry Lower or single HouseUpper House or Senate ElectionsSeats*Women% WElectionsSeats*Women% W 80U.S.11 20124327717.8%11 20121002020% 59U.K.5 201065014622.5%N.A.76017222.6% 18Mexico7 201250018436.8%7 20121284232.8% 125Nigeria4 2011360246.7%4 201110976.4% 96Russia12 20114506113.6%N.A.163138% 135Iran5 201229093.1%---- 56China3 2013298769923.4%---

56 Economic Change 56

57 57 Mexico and Russia have each experienced economic liberalization and political liberalization. (a) Define economic liberalization and define political liberalization. (b) Describe one economic liberalization policy pursued in Mexico since 1985 and one economic liberalization policy pursued in Russia since 1991. (c) Describe one political liberalization policy undertaken in Mexico since 1985 and one political liberalization policy undertaken in Russia since 1991. (d) Compare one consequence of economic liberalization on social class in Mexico with one consequence of economic liberalization on social class in Russia.

58 58 From... President Cardenas (1934-40) most important reformer; embodied socialist aspects of Revolution first president to implement the Constitution's call for land reform Integrated peasants and workers into state-controlled unions Nationalized foreign-dominated oil industry ; created PEMEX (state oil monopoly

59 59 FROM Import substitution : a trade and economic policy based on the premise that a country should attempt to reduce its foreign dependency through the local production of industrialized products

60 60 Economic crisis in 1970s and 1980s Huge deficit b/c govt had been trying to spend its way out of accumulating social and economic problems w/o raising taxes—fuels inflation Over reliance on oil to fund govt and borrow on, then world wide decline in oil prices in early 1980s Presidents de La Madrid (1982-1988) and Salinas (1988-1995) responded by abandoning protectionist policies, land reform and adopting neo-lib policies Salinas uses “shock therapy” of a sort (price and wage controls, boost revenues, cutting spending)

61 61 To Structural adjustment: (a policy of economic liberalization adopted in exchange for financial support from liberal international organizations, typically includes privatizing state run firms, ending subsidies, reducing tariff barriers, shrinking the size of the state and recombining foreign investment)

62 62

63 63 Plans To Privatize Bank System By LARRY ROHTER, Special to The New York Times Published: May 03, 1990 President Carlos Salinas de Gortari sent the Mexican Congress a constitutional amendment today that would reprivatize the country's banking system, which has been in state hands since 1982, and allow private interests to set up new financial institutions. The proposal, if passed by both houses of Congress, would authorize the Mexican Government to sell off its 66 percent share in the nation's 18 commercial banks, a stake that is worth several billion dollars on the open market Search All

64 64 NAFTA brought a torrent of American investment as manufacturers set up plants south of the border to take advantage of lower labour costs. This influx brought modernisation and new technology, and underpinned rapid economic growth in the late-1990s.... But NAFTA has left Mexico highly dependent on the health of the American economy, and on a few lines of cross-border business in particular... These include car manufacturing, the construction industry and tourism.

65 65 IunUcqc

66 66 When Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto signs a new oil reform into law Friday, it could mark a turning point for Latin America's second-largest economy, one of Mexico's leading energy officials told CNBC. "It's a magnificent reform," Mexico's Energy Undersecretary Enrique Ochoa said in an exclusive interview. Along with many other energy experts, he thinks the law will lead to an increase in oil and gas production, as well as lower energy prices. The law will change three articles of the nation's constitution, thereby allowing foreign investment and production-sharing agreements in Mexico for the first time in more than 70 years. The reform was necessary because the country's oil and gas model had shown "signs of exhaustion" for years, Ochoa said. ENERGY REFORM DEC 2013

67 67 Oil and PEMEX in 2007 Pemex is in trouble. Its production and proven reserves are falling, and it has no money to reverse the slide. Mexico is the second-largest supplier of imported oil to the United States, after Canada, but its total exports are slipping. If the company continues on its current course, Mexico may one day have trouble just keeping up with rising demand at home..... The major reason that Pemex’s prospects are so poor, energy experts agree, is government interference. The Mexican government, which expropriated the oil industry in 1938, depends on Pemex to finance its budget. Last year, sales at Pemex (its full name is Petróleos Mexicanos) reached $97 billion. But $79 billion of that went to the government, Pemex’s chief, Jesús Reyes Heróles, said last month. That accounted for almost 40 percent of the federal budget. Government interference is only part of the story. Pemex has been hamstrung by years of short-sighted management aimed at extracting the most cash for the government treasury — Mexico’s president and Congress must approve the company’s budget, its output, investments and exports each year. By law, Pemex is closed to any outside investment, shutting it off from private capital and expertise. Why change? Look at this article from 2007

68 68

69 69

70 70 A supporter of Andrés Manuel López Obrador, the former presidential candidate, at a Mexico City rally in March. His banner, referring to the state oil company, reads, “Pemex is not for sale.” NYT 4/8/2008 State Oil Industry’s Future Sets Off Tussle in Mexico

71 71 Mexican congressman to colleagues: “Privatize This” Mexican congressman to colleagues: “Privatize This”

72 72 Acceptable descriptions of political liberalization policies in Mexico include: Voter ID cards. Priests allowed to vote. The Federal Electoral Institute was strengthened in 2007. Addition of the system of proportional representation (PR) to create mixed legislative elections. End of the rule of impunity (arrest of Raúl Salinas). Election reforms in the late 1990s to reduce corruption. The inclusion of women through party quotas.

73 73 Acceptable descriptions of economic liberalization policies in Mexico include: Approval of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Closure of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) (former president Salinas). Privatization of banks. Cutting of subsidies to farms. Parastatals (e.g., the state farms, ejidos) sold off by the state. Creation of special laws for maquiladoras (e.g., tax incentives). Joining the World Trade Organization (WTO). Privatization (with mention of specific sectors, e.g., telecom, airlines). Reduction of the power of the oil workers’ union. Replacement of import-substitution with structural-adjustment policies. Note: For parts (b) and (c), the answer must describe a policy, not a change or outcome.

74 74 Maquiladoras foreign owned plants that import materials or parts to assemble for re-export account for about half of all of Mexico's exports, generate more foreign exchange for Mexico than any other sector, including oil At first, concentrated along the Mexican-U.S. border, now more wide spread exacerbated north-south gap ~jdrew/web/maquila.html

75 75 Cleavages: Ethnic Indigenous: Glorified in history, tradition and revolution, but now... politically marginalized and victims of Mexico's worst poverty, compared to Mexico's wealthy elite who tend to be lighter skinned and of European origins Leads to Chiapas... MOVEMENT (ahem: indigenous rights social movement)

76 76 DRESS CODE: Martha Ramirez works at her stand in Tijuana, Mexico. City regulations will now require vendors to wear traditional dress or a city uniform. “proud of Indian past, ashamed of Indian present”

77 77 CHIAPAS Who: mostly Mayan Indians What: form Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN) When: Jan 1994 Where: occupied several towns in State of Chiapas Why: Indigenous rts. democratization, end to neo-liberal economic reforms

78 78 Subcomandante Marcos IMPACT: surprisingly popular within Mexico and, together with the economic crisis, helped erode PRI political dominance and to accelerate electoral reforms

79 79 Zapatistas and NAFTA BBC video america-25565756 america-25565756 BBC story america-25550654 america-25550654

80 80 New UN study says the richest 10 % of Mexicans produce 43 percent of the country's wealth, and the bottom tenth 1 % woam.html CLEAVAGES: Rich/poor Gap Long time great inequality—despite rhetoric of Mexican rev Worse in rural/south Increased with switch to neo-lib economic policies

81 81 GINI INDEX: a measure of inequality

82 82 Correlation with per-capita GDP Poor countries (those with low per capita GDP have Gini coefficients that fall over the whole range from low (0.25) to high (0.71), while rich countries have generally low Gini coefficient (under 0.40). The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality It is usually used to measure income inequality, but can be used to measure any form of uneven distribution. The Gini coefficient is a number between 0 and 1, where 0 corresponds with perfect equality (where everyone has the same income) and 1 corresponds with perfect inequality (where one person has all the income, and everyone else has zero income). The Gini index is the Gini coefficient expressed in percentage form, and is equal to the Gini coefficient multiplied by 100. The Gini coefficient's main advantage is that it is a measure of inequality, not a measure of average income or some other variable which is unrepresentative of most of the population, such as GDP

83 83. Inequality and the Regional Gap

84 84 ________is more privileged; characterized by large-scale export agriculture _______far poorer infrastructure, lower levels of education, and more poverty; land much more fragmented. Rural Urban: 70% of the population that lives in extreme poverty live in rural areas

85 85 More evidence of regional gap: “Mexican riot police have seized control of the southern city of Oaxaca, ending a five-month occupation by striking teachers and leftist activists” BBC Oct 2006.... Another Social Movement

86 86 October 29, 2006 3 Killed in Mexican Protest; Police Move In OAXACA, Mexico, Oct. 28 — Hundreds of federal riot police officers and soldiers took up positions outside this besieged tourist city in southern Mexico on Saturday, poised to end an increasingly violent protest that has shut the downtown for five months and left about a dozen people dead

87 87 After a five-month standoff in which protesters had occupied the main square of the colonial city of Oaxaca, federal police armed with water cannons and backed by heavily armed soldiers advanced on protesters. By nightfall, they had taken control of the city’s main square, which had been an encampment of protesters. The protesters seek the removal of the governor of Oaxaca State. Mexican Forces Move to Retake Oaxaca

88 88 Participation: Voting Traditionally done to ratify a choice of candidates made by PRI hierarchy Why: civic duty, patron client obligatory voting by law; evidence sometimes required to get public services Turnout higher in __________ see iew.cfm?CountryCode=MX iew.cfm?CountryCode=MX From the BBC elections 2003 as/3052124.stm

89 89 Participation Protests: BBC Election 2006 Thousands in Mexico City Protest Rising Food Prices Jan 31 2007

90 90 Protesters in Mexico City on Wednesday made known their displeasure over the rising price of food staples. Jan 19 2007

91 91 Evid of neo-lib and Level of Government: Supranational: WTO (free trade), IMF, World Bank (conditions of loans: structural adjustment pushed) WTO Meets in Cancun summer, 2003 Security is tight and authorities have constructed a metal fence around the complex. Demonstrators have clashed with police

92 92 The Mexican legal system is based on Spanish civil law (based on the Napoleonic code) with some influence of the common law tradition. Unlike the United States version of the common law system, under which the judiciary enjoys broad powers of jurisprudence, Spanish civil law is based upon strict adherence to legal codes and minimal jurisprudence.

93 93 Institutions: Military One of biggest accomplishments of revolution is to establish civilian control Institutional loyalty tested in 2000 but civilian control won out Human rights abuses in Chiapas, and in dealing with drug and security problems and in the 43 and....

94 94 Michoacan: Mexico's failed state? C Jan 28 2014 Vigilante groups armed with high- powered weapons of questionable origin have pushed out a powerful drug cartel, the Knights Templar, from some of their key footholds in a region called Tierra Caliente. As the retreating drug cartel members fled towards the town of Apatzingan, they burned lorries and set up roadblocks along the main highway. Meanwhile the army, sent in to restore order and disarm the self-defence forces in the town of Antunez, opened fire, killing at least two villagers

95 95 Mexico to deploy federal forces in Michoacan conflict zone Jan 2014 The "self-defence groups" seized several small towns in the western state of Michoacan over the past week. They say they are fighting for the freedom of their communities from the notorious Knights Templar cartel. Mexican Interior Minister Miguel Angel Osorio Chong urged the vigilantes to lay down their weapons. But he warned that there would be no tolerance for those who continued fighting. 25721552

96 96 10 February 2014 BBC Q & A Who is behind Mexico's drug-related violence?

97 97 atch?v=q8eJk3LEu0M BBC News US marijuana legalisation fuels Mexico drugs war

98 98 Public Policy Many would-be migrants at the US border are intercepted mericas/country_profiles/1210779. stm

99 99 Environment Policy difficulties reflect priorities of developing countries Air pollution in Mexico City: 88% of the days are above acceptable levels of air pollution for humans air pollution also has intensified along the border with the US because of the growing number of maquiladoras, as well as the increased truck traffic with the United States.

100 100 A Mexican flag is barely visible in the smog-filled skies over Mexico City. (AP/Roberto Velazquez) Mexico City pollution eroding residents’ sense of smell Officials have taken steps to address the problem. In 1989, the city introduced “Hoy No Circula,” a program in which cars with license plates ending in certain numbers would be prohibited from driving on a given day of the week.

101 Wedding, p. 137101 Olmec, Mayan, Toltec, Aztec, & others Arrival Of Cortes War for Indepen- dence War With USA Diaz Regime: Porfiriato Revolt Const- itution Crister Rebellion Pre 15001519 1810- 1821 1846 1848 1876- 1911 1910- 19211917 1927- 1929 Historical & Political Turning Points

102 Wedding, p. 137102 PRI’s predecessor Founded Gov’t Of Cardenas Pemax Oil Co. Nationalized PAN founded Women Suffrage Massacre Of Tialtelolco OIL Crisis Debt Crisis 1929 1934- 19401938193919531968 1978- 19821982 Historical and Political Turning Points

103 Wedding, p. 137103 Earthquake In Mexico City Salinas Elected Pres. NAFTA, Zapatisa Revolt in Chiapas, Colosio is Assassinated Electoral Reforms PRI Loses Majority in Chamber Of Deputies PRI Presidential Candidate Beaten for First Time by Vicente Fox 198519881994199619972000 Historical and Political Turning Points

104 104

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