Presentation on theme: "IPv6 Fundamentals Chapter 1: Introduction to IPv6 Rick Graziani Cabrillo College Fall 2013."— Presentation transcript:
IPv6 Fundamentals Chapter 1: Introduction to IPv6 Rick Graziani Cabrillo College Fall 2013
Technology Today Imagine a world without the Internet. No more Google, YouTube, instant messaging, Facebook, Amazon, Wikipedia, online gaming, Netflix, iTunes, and easy access to current information. 2
Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) is the current Layer 3 protocol Survived for over 30 years and has been an integral part of the Internet evolution. Originally described in RFC 760 (January 1980) and obsoleted by RFC 791 (September 1981) 3
The Network Today The Internet of today is much different that it was 30, 15 or 5 years ago. 4
Technology Tomorrow Now consider what changes will happen within the next 25 years. The Internet of Everything (IoE)... A necessity for IPv6 The IoE is bringing together people, process, data, and things to make networked connections more relevant and valuable. 5
Early Years of the Internet RFC 2235 Hobbes’ Internet Timeline 6
1957: The USSR launches Sputnik, the first artificial earth satellite. In response, the United States forms the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) within the Department of Defense (DoD) to establish a U.S. lead in science and technology. 1962: Paul Baran publishes the paper “On Distributed Communications Networks,” a predecessor to the concept of packet-switching networks. 1969: ARPANET is commissioned by the DoD for research into networking. The first node (a mainframe computer) is at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) Network Measurements Center. The next three nodes consisted of Stanford Research Institute (SRI), the University of California Santa Barbara (UCSB), and the University of Utah. The first router is an Information Message Processor (IMP), a Honeywell 516 mini-computer with 12K of memory developed by Bolt Beranek and Newman, Inc. (BBN). 1969: The first Request for Comments (RFC) is written: “Host Software,” by Steve Crocker. 1971: Fifteen nodes (23 hosts) are on the ARPANET: UCLA, SRI, UCSB, University of Utah, BBN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), RAND Corporation, System Development Corporation (SDC), Harvard University, MIT’s Lincoln Lab, Stanford University, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Case Western Reserve University, Carnegie-Mellon University, and NASA/Ames Research Center. 7
1971: Ray Tomlinson of BBN invents an program to send messages across a distributed network. 1973: Bob Metcalfe’s Harvard Ph.D. thesis outlines the idea for Ethernet. 1973: The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) specification is written (RFC 454). 1974: Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn publish the paper “A Protocol for Packet Network Intercommunication,” which specified in detail the design for Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). 1982: ARPA establishes TCP/IP as the protocol suite for the ARPANET. This leads to one of the first definitions of an “Internet” as a connected set of networks that use TCP/IP. 1982: The External Gateway Protocol (RFC 827) specification is written. EGP is used as the routing protocol between networks and is later replaced by Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) in 1994 (RFC 1656). 1983: The Internet transitions from Network Control Protocol (NCP) to TCP/IP on January : The Domain Name System (DNS) is introduced with RFC : The number of hosts on the Internet breaks : The National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET) initiates operations with a backbone speed of 56 kbps. 1987: The number of hosts on the Internet breaks 10,000. 8
1988: The NSFNET backbone is upgraded to T1 (1.544 Mbps). 1988: Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is developed by Jarkko Oikarinen. 1989: The number of hosts on the Internet breaks 100, : Cuckoo’s Egg, written by Clifford Stoll, tells the real-life tale of a German cracker group that infiltrated numerous U.S. facilities. 1990: The first remotely operated machine to be hooked up to the Internet, the Internet Toaster, makes its debut at Interop (IT Expo and Conference). 1991: The World Wide Web (WWW) is released by CERN; it was developed by Tim Berners-Lee. 1991: The NSFNET backbone is upgraded to T3 ( Mbps). 1992: The number of hosts on the Internet breaks 1,000, : The term “surfing the Internet” is coined by Jean Armour Polly. 1993: The U.S. White House comes online with President Bill Clinton: and Vice President Al Gore: vice- whitehouse.gov. 1994: Shopping on the Internet begins. 1994: Pizza from Pizza Hut can be ordered using the World Wide Web. 9
1995: WWW surpasses FTP as the service with the greatest amount of traffic on the Internet. 1995: Online dialup providers Compuserve, America Online, and Prodigy begin to provide Internet access. 1995: The Vatican comes online. 1996: Internet phones catch the attention of U.S. telecommunication companies, which request the U.S. Congress to ban the technology. 1996: The controversial U.S. Communications Decency Act (CDA) becomes law in the United States to prohibit distribution of indecent materials over the Internet. A few months later, a three-judge panel imposes an injunction against its enforcement. The U.S. Supreme Court unanimously rules most of it unconstitutional in : MCI upgrades its Internet backbone, bringing the effective speed from 155 Mbps to 622 Mbps. 1996: The WWW browser war, fought primarily between Netscape and Microsoft, rushes in a new age in software development, whereby new releases are made quarterly with the help of Internet users eager to test upcoming (beta) versions. 10
1996: Restrictions are put in place for Internet use around the world (Source: Human Rights Watch): China requires users and Internet service providers (ISP) to register with the police. Germany cuts off access to some newsgroups carried on Compuserve. Saudi Arabia confines Internet access to universities and hospitals. Singapore requires political and religious content providers to register with the state. New Zealand classifies computer disks as “publications” that can be censored and seized. 1997: 101,803 Name Servers are in the “whois” database. 1997: The number of hosts on the Internet breaks 19,000,
Early Days of the Internet. 12
The Internet 13
larger-in-year-2013/ larger-in-year-2013/ 14
The Internet of Things, The Internet of Everything The Internet is more than just connecting people. At the very least we need IPv6 for the Internet to continue. So, the “killer application” for the Internet is the Internet itself.
Internet of Everything A key reason for IPv6. 17
IPv5 In the late 1970s, a family of experimental protocols was developed known as Internet Stream Protocol (ST) and later ST2. Originally defined in Internet Engineering Note IEN-119 (1979) Later revised in RFC 1190 and RFC ST was an experimental resource reservation protocol intended to provide quality of service (QoS) for real-time multimedia applications such as video and voice. Internet Stream Protocol version 2 (ST-II or ST2) was not designed as a replacement for IPv4. 18
History of IPv6 IETF began development of a successor to IPv4 in the early 1990s. In 1994, the IETF formed a working group, IP Next Generation, to establish the standards to be used for IPv6: An address architecture and assignment plan Supporting larger packet sizes Tunneling IPv6 packets over IPv4 Security and autoconfiguration The size of the Internet routing tables increasing rapidly and the explosion of the number of Internet users generated a consensus that it was time to begin designing and testing a new network layer protocol as the successor to IPv4. Various projections, including a study done by the IETF in the early 1990s, predicted that the Internet would run out of IPv4 address space somewhere between 2005 and
History of IPv6 The three proposals were as follows: Common Architecture for the Internet (CATNIP): CATNIP proposed integrating IP, Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX), and Connectionless Network Layer Protocol (CLNP). IPX was part of the Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange (IPX/SPX) suite of protocols used primarily on networks employing the Novell NetWare operating systems. CLNP is an OSI standard defined in ISO 8473 and is the equivalent of IPv4 for the OSI suite of protocols. CATNIP is defined in RFC Simple Internet Protocol Plus (SIPP): SIPP recommended increasing the IPv4 address size from 32 bits to 64 bits, along with additional improvements to the IPv4 header for more efficient forwarding. SIPP is defined in RFC TCP/UDP over CLNP-Addressed Networks (TUBA): TUBA requested minimizing the risk associated with migration to a new IP address by replacing IP with CLNP and its address size of 20 bytes (160 bits). TCP, UDP, and the traditional TCP/IP applications would run on top of CLNP. TUBA is defined in RFCs 1347, 1526, and
Monday, January 31, 2011 IANA allocated two blocks of IPv4 address space to APNIC, the RIR for the Asia Pacific region This triggered a global policy to allocate the remaining IANA pool of 5 /8’s equally between the five RIRs. So, basically…
Figure 1-8 RIR IPv6 Address Run-Down Model
History of IPv6 IETF chose SIPP, written by Steve Deering, Paul Francis, and Bob Hinden, but with an address size of 128 bits. The IETF working group IP Next Generation was formed in In 1995, IETF published RFC 1883, Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6) Specification, which later became obsolete and was replaced by RFC 2460 in In 2001, the IPng working group was renamed to the IPv6 working group. Regional Internet Registries (RIR) began allocating IPv6 addresses to their customers in
Benefits of IPv6 Extended address space: IPv6 provides 128-bit source and destination addresses compared to 32-bit addresses with IPv4. This represents an enormous number of addresses: 2 128, or about 340 trillion trillion trillion addresses, enough for every grain of sand on earth. 24
IPv6 is more than just larger address space. It was a chance to make some improvements on the IP protocol.
Benefits of IPv6 Stateless autoconfiguration: IPv6 provides a configuration mechanism where hosts can self-generate a routable address. IPv4-autoconfigured addresses. 26 Router Advertisement (Address, prefix, link MTU)
Benefits of IPv6 Eliminates the need for NAT/PAT: Because of the large number of public IPv6 addresses, there is no longer a need for Network Address Translation / Port Address Translation (NAT/PAT).. 27 ISP XYZ Private RFC 1918 Address /8 XYZ Private RFC 1918 Address /8 Internet Public Address: /29 NAT Pool (Host Addresses) /29 Source IP: Destination: RouterA Source IP: Destination: Source IP: Destination: Source IP: Destination: /
Benefits of IPv6 Eliminates broadcasts: IPv6 does not use Layer 3 broadcast addresses. However, IPv6 does employ solicited node multicast addresses, a more efficient and selective technique for processes such as address resolution.. 28
Benefits of IPv6 Transition tools: IPv6 has a variety of tools to help with the transition from IPv4 to IPv6, including tunneling and NAT. 29 Tunneling – IPv6 packets encapsulated inside IPv4 packets. NAT64 – Translating between IPv4 and IPv6. Native IPv6 – All IPv6 (our focus and the goal of every organization).
IPv4 IPv6 When do I have to go to IPv6? IPv4 and IPv6 will coexist for the foreseeable future. Dual-stack – Device running both IPv4 and IPv6.
No more NAT as we know it IETF does not support the concept of translating a “private IPv6” address to a “public” IPv6 address. NAT for IPv4 breaks many things /24 RFC 1918 Private Address Public IPv4 Address
Summary How we use the Internet today is much different than it was when IPv4 was developed, with more users, more devices, and new demands. We have moved from just an Internet of computers to an Internet of things/everything. Although no one knows exactly when, we will eventually run out of IPv4’s 4.3 billion addresses, but the fact is that the Internet is in the final stages of public IPv4 address availability. IPv6, with its 128-bit address scheme, provides more than enough globally unique addresses to support the growth of the Internet. IPv4 and IPv6 will coexist for the foreseeable future. IPv6 includes tools and migration strategies that allow both protocols to coexist. The combination of CIDR, NAT, and private addressing has helped slow the depletion of IPv4 address space. However, NAT complicates many applications, including peer-to-peer networking, and with an emerging global Internet community, these enhancements to IPv4 are no longer sufficient. In addition to a larger address space, IPv6 offers additional enhancements such as stateless autoconfiguration and expanded address space without NAT. Now is the best time for IT departments to begin familiarizing themselves with IPv6 before an ordered mandate. The Internet is the killer-application for IPv6. 32
IPv6 Fundamentals Chapter 1: Introduction to IPv6 Rick Graziani Cabrillo College Fall 2013