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3-1 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. April 28, 2009 Inventory # Chapter 3 Solver Basics Introductory FLUENT Training Sharif University of Technology Lecturer: Ehsan Saadati
Solver Basics 3-2 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. April 28, 2009 Inventory # Training Manual FLUENT 12 GUI Navigation The FLUENT GUI is arranged such that the tasks are generally arranged from top to bottom in the project setup tree. Selecting an item in the tree opens the relevant input items in the center pane. –General –Models –Materials –Boundary Conditions –Solver Settings –Initialization and Calculation –Postprocessing
Solver Basics 3-3 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. April 28, 2009 Inventory # Training Manual Scaling the Mesh and Selecting Units When FLUENT reads a mesh file (.msh), all physical dimensions are assumed to be in units of meters. –If your model was not built in meters, then it must be scaled. –Verify that the Domain Extents are correct after scaling the mesh. When importing a mesh under Workbench, the mesh does not need to be scaled; however, the units are set to the default MKS system. Any “mixed” units system can be used if desired. –By default, FLUENT uses the SI system of units (specifically, MKS system). –Any units can be specified in the Set Units panel, accessed from the top menu. Define Units…
Solver Basics 3-4 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. April 28, 2009 Inventory # Training Manual Text User Interface Most GUI commands have a corresponding TUI command. –Many advanced commands are only available through the TUI. –Press the Enter key to display the command set at the current level. – q moves up one level. FLUENT can be run in batch mode or scripted using a journal file (see Appendix) A TUI user guide is available on the FLUENT User Services Center
Solver Basics 3-5 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. April 28, 2009 Inventory # Training Manual Mouse Functionality Mouse button functionality depends on the chosen solver (2D / 3D) and can be configured in the solver. Default settings –2D Solver Left button translates/pans (dolly) Middle button zooms Right button selects/probes –3D Solver Left button rotates about 2 axes Middle button zooms –Middle click on point in screen centers point in window Right button selects/probes Retrieve detailed flow field information at point with Probe enabled. –Right-click on the graphics display. Mouse controls can be set to emulate those in Workbench! Display Mouse Buttons…
Solver Basics 3-6 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. April 28, 2009 Inventory # Training Manual Material Properties FLUENT provides a standard database of materials and the ability to create a custom user-defined database. Your choice of physical models may require multiple materials and dictate which material properties must be defined. –Multiphase (multiple materials) –Combustion (multiple species) –Heat transfer (thermal conductivity) –Radiation (emissivity and absorptivity) Material properties can be directly customized as function of temperature/pressure –Use of other solution variable(s) requires UDF.
Solver Basics 3-7 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. April 28, 2009 Inventory # Training Manual Materials Databases FLUENT materials database –Provides access to a number of pre-defined fluid, solid and mixture materials. –Materials can be copied to the case file and edited if required. Custom material database: –Create a new custom database of material properties and reaction mechanisms from materials in an existing case file for reuse in future cases. –Custom databases can be created, accessed and modified from the standard materials panel in FLUENT.
Solver Basics 3-8 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. April 28, 2009 Inventory # Training Manual Operating Conditions The Operating Pressure with a Reference Pressure Location sets the reference value that is used in computing gauge pressures. The Operating Temperature sets the reference temperature (used when computing buoyancy forces. Specified Operating Density sets the reference value for flows with widely varying density.
Solver Basics 3-9 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. April 28, 2009 Inventory # Training Manual Parallel Processing Parallel processing can be used to run FLUENT on multiple processors to decrease turnaround time and increase simulation efficiency. –Critical for cases involving large meshes and/or complex physics. –FLUENT is fully parallelized and capable of running across most hardware and software configurations, such as compute clusters or multi-processor machines. Parallel FLUENT can be launched either using the system command prompt or using the FLUENT Launcher panel. –For example, to launch an n-CPU parallel session, use the command fluent 3d –tn The mesh can be partitioned either manually or automatically using a number of different methods. –Non-conformal meshes, sliding mesh interfaces and shell conduction zones require partitioning in serial. A web-based lecture is available on the FLUENT User Services Center.
Solver Basics 3-10 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. April 28, 2009 Inventory # Training Manual Summary This lecture has presented many basic tasks that are often performed during a CFD simulation setup. Parallel processing can be used to reduce calculation time. This is advantageous only on large meshes. A later lecture contains material related to the setup and solution of time-dependent problems. Other topics not discussed (see Appendix for information). –Mesh heirarchy and relationships. –Reordering and modifying the mesh in the solver. –Polyhedral mesh conversion. –Solution-based mesh adaption.
3-11 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. April 28, 2009 Inventory # Appendix
Solver Basics 3-12 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. April 28, 2009 Inventory # Training Manual FLUENT Journals FLUENT can be run in batch mode using journal files. A journal file is a text file which contains TUI commands which FLUENT will execute sequentially. The FLUENT TUI accepts abbreviations of the commands; for example, – ls Lists the files in the working folder – rcd Reads case and data files – wcd Writes case and data files – rc/wc Reads/writes case file – rd/wd Reads/writes data file – it Iterate TUI commands in a batch file can be used to automate operations in a non-interactive mode. –The TUI commands file/read-bc and file/write-bc can be used for reading and writing the settings for a FLUENT session to and from a file, respectively. –A web-based training module is available which explains this process ; Read case file rc example.cas.gz ; Initialize the solution /solve/initialize/initialize-flow ; Calculate 50 iterations it 50 ; Write data file wd example50.dat.gz ; Calculate another 50 iterations it 50 ; Write another data file wd example100.dat.gz ; Exit FLUENT exit yes Sample Journal File
Solver Basics 3-13 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. April 28, 2009 Inventory # Training Manual Reading the Mesh – Zones In this example, there are two cell zones (fluid-upstream and fluid- downstream). Because of this, FLUENT splits the exterior wall zone into two zones (wall and wall:001). This is because an external boundary cannot span multiple cell zones. FLUENT also splits the orifice plate into two walls also (plate and plate-shadow) since the plate zone is an internal wall. inlet outlet wall plate plate-shadow fluid (cell zone) Default-interior zone(s) can always be ignored.
Solver Basics 3-14 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. April 28, 2009 Inventory # Training Manual Mesh Information and Hierarchy All mesh information is stored in the mesh file. –Node coordinates –Connectivity –Zone definition Similar to the way geometry is defined, mesh entities obey a hierarchy: –NodeEdge intersection / grid point –EdgeBoundary of a face (defined by two nodes –FaceThe boundaries of cells, defined by a collection of edges –CellThe control volumes into which the domain is discretized. –ZoneA collection of nodes, edges, faces or cells. The computational domain is defined by all members of the hierarchy –For fluid flow simulation only, the domain consists only of the fluid region. –For conjugate heat transfer or fluid-structure interaction problems, the domain needs to include any solid parts that are present. Boundary data is assigned to face zones. Material data and source terms are assigned to cell zones. Simple 3D mesh Simple 2D Mesh Node Boundary Face Cell Cell Center Cell Face Node Boundary Face Cell Edge
Solver Basics 3-15 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. April 28, 2009 Inventory # Training Manual Reordering and Modifying the Grid The grid can be reordered so that neighboring cells are near each other in the zones and in memory –Improves efficiency of memory access and reduces the bandwidth of the computation –Reordering can be performed for the entire domain or specific cell zones. –The bandwidth of each partition in the grid can be printed for reference. The face/cell zones can also be modified by the following operations in the Grid menu: –Separation and merge of zones –Fusing of cell zones with merge of duplicate faces and nodes –Translate, rotate, reflect face or cell zones –Extrusion of face zones to extend the domain –Replace a cell zone with another or delete it –Activate and Deactivate cell zones GridReorder Zones GridReorder Domain GridReorder Print Bandwidth
Solver Basics 3-16 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. April 28, 2009 Inventory # Training Manual Polyhedral Mesh Conversion A tetrahedral or hybrid grid can be converted to polyhedra in the FLUENT GUI (not in the preprocessor). –Generate a tetrahedral mesh then convert inside FLUENT. –Advantages Improved mesh quality. Can reduce cell count significantly. User has control of the conversion process. –Disadvantages: Cannot be adapted or converted again. Cannot use tools such as smooth, swap, merge and extrude to modify the mesh. Two conversion options are available in the Grid menu: –Convert all cells in the domain (except hex cells) to polyhedra Cannot convert meshes with hanging nodes HexCore mesh can be converted using the tpoly standalone utility. –Convert only highly skewed cells to polyhedra GridPolyhedra Convert Skewed Cells GridPolyhedra Convert Domain Tet/Hybrid Mesh Polyhedral Mesh
Solver Basics 3-17 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. April 28, 2009 Inventory # Training Manual Profile Data and Solution Data Interpolation FLUENT allows interpolation of selected variable data on both face zones and cell zones by using profile files and data interpolation files, respectively. –For example, a velocity profile from experimental data or previous FLUENT run at an inlet, or a solution interpolated from a coarse mesh to fine mesh. Profile files are data files which contain point data for selected variables on particular face zones, and can be both written and read in a FLUENT session. Similarly, Interpolation data files contain discrete data for selected field variables on particular cell zones to be written and read into FLUENT. File Profile… WriteFile Profile… ReadFile Interpolate…
Solver Basics 3-18 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. April 28, 2009 Inventory # Training Manual Mesh Adaption Mesh adaption refers to refinement and/or coarsening cells where needed to resolve the flow field without returning to the preprocessor. –Mark cells satisfying the adaption criteria and store them in a “register.” –Display and modify the register if desired. –Click Adapt to adapt the cells listed in the register. Registers can be defined based on: –Gradients or isovalues of all variables –All cells on a boundary –All cells in a region with a defined shape –Cell volumes or volume changes –y+ in cells adjacent to walls To assist adaption process, you can: –Combine adaption registers –Draw contours of adaption function –Display cells marked for adaption –Limit adaption based on cell size and number of cells Refine Threshold should be set to 10% of the value reported in the Max field.
Solver Basics 3-19 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. April 28, 2009 Inventory # Training Manual Adaption Example – Supersonic Projectile Adapt grid in regions of large pressure gradient to better resolve the sudden pressure rise across the shock. Initial Mesh (Generated by Preprocessor) Pressure Contours on Initial Mesh Large pressure gradient indicating a shock (poor resolution on coarse mesh)
Solver Basics 3-20 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. April 28, 2009 Inventory # Training Manual Adaption Example – Supersonic Projectile Solution-based mesh adaption allows better resolution of the bow shock and expansion wave. Mesh adaption yields much better resolution of the bow shock. Adapted cells in locations of large pressure gradients Adapted Mesh (Multiple Adaptions Based on Gradients of Pressure) Pressure Contours on Adapted Mesh
10-1 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. April 28, 2009 Inventory # Chapter 10 Transient Flow Modeling Introductory FLUENT.
WS6-1 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary © 2009 ANSYS, Inc. All rights reserved. April 28, 2009 Inventory # Introduction to CFX Workshop 6 Electronics Cooling.
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