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Restaurant Operations Chapter 7 John R. Walker Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to Hospitality Management, 4e.

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Presentation on theme: "Restaurant Operations Chapter 7 John R. Walker Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to Hospitality Management, 4e."— Presentation transcript:

1 Restaurant Operations Chapter 7 John R. Walker Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to Hospitality Management, 4e

2 Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved Front of the House Includes anyone with guest contact from the hostess to the bus person Curbside appeal: Keeping the restaurant looking attractive and welcoming Restaurant is run by a General Manager, or restaurant manager Depending on size and sales volume, there may be more managers with other responsibilities Managers should all be cross-trained to relieve each other

3 Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved Restaurant Organizational Chart Figure 7-1

4 Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved Front of the House The hostess, host, or greeter is responsible for greeting the guests and the rotation of arriving guests among sections or stations Servers introduce themselves and offer a variety of beverages and/or specials, and invite guests to select from the menu –This is known as suggestive selling

5 Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved Front of the House Seven steps of table service: –Greet guests –Introduce and suggestively sell beverages –Suggest appetizers –Take orders –Check back after two bites –Sell another drink –Sell dessert and suggest after dinner drinks Servers are also expected to be NCO (neat, clean, and organized)

6 Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved Restaurant Forecasting Formulating a budget that projects sales and costs for a year on a weekly and monthly basis Forecasting restaurant sales has 2 components: Guest counts or covers and the average guest check Guest counts or covers: The number of guests patronizing the restaurant over a given time period Average guest check: Calculated by dividing total sales by the number of guests

7 Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved Restaurant Forecasting The year is divided into twelve 28-day periods and one 29-day period. These 13 accounting periods are used to better compare one period to another

8 Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved Service Today, quality is more important to American diners Quality is often the one area that sets one restaurant apart from its competition A new standard in American service has emerged; a less formal yet professional approach is preferred by American diners

9 Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved Types of Restaurant Service American Service: Food is placed onto plates in the kitchen, carried into the dining room, and served to guests –Restaurants in the United States, Canada, and many other parts of the world all use American service

10 Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved Suggestive Selling Suggestive selling is an important tool to increase food and beverage sales Guests are not usually offended with suggestive selling techniques Through training, servers become sellers Guests will be more likely to be receptive to suggestions from competent servers

11 Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved Front of the House Restaurant Systems Point-of-sale (POS) systems: –Used to track food and beverage charges and other retail charges that may occur at a hotel or restaurant Kitchen Display Systems: –Printers in the kitchen are replaced with video monitors and presents orders to kitchen associates along with information on how long orders are taking to be prepared Guest Services Solutions: –Applications that are designed to help a restaurateur develop a dining relationship with guests –Applications include a frequent-diner management program, delivery management with caller ID interface, and guest accounts receivable to manage home accounts and gift certificate management

12 Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved Back of the House Restaurant Systems Includes inventory control, food costing, labor management, and financial reporting features Wireless POS Systems: –Allows the servers to use a handheld personal digital assistant to send orders to the kitchen Labor Management: –Includes a human resources module to track hiring, employee personal information, vacation, I-9 status, security privileges, tax status, availability, and any other information pertinent to employees working at a restaurant

13 Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved Back of the House Restaurant Systems Financial Reporting: –Posts data into a relational database located on the central server –The restaurant manager uses these data for reporting and decision making, profit and loss reports, budget variances, end-of-day reports, and other financial reports are generated Personal Digital Assistants: –Help hospitality businesses stay effective and efficient by improving time management and helping with faster service

14 Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved Food Production Based on expected volume of business The sales from the previous year gives a good indication of the expected volume and a breakdown of the number of sales for each menu item The kitchen manager checks the head line cook’s order, which will bring the prep area up to the par stock for prepared items Prep work is done prior to service times

15 Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved Food Production The cooking line is the most important part The size of the kitchen and its equipment are designed according to the sales forecast for the restaurant and the menu The kitchen is also set up according to what the customers prefer and order most frequently

16 Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved Kitchen/Food Production Staffing and Scheduling: Crucial for the successful running of a kitchen Training and Development: Implementing a comprehensive training program is vital in the kitchen, due to a high turnover rate

17 Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved Kitchen/Food Production Production Procedures: Relates directly to the recipes on the menu and amount of product on hand to produce the menu Production sheets: –Count the product on hand (par levels). –Determine production level.

18 Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved Kitchen/Food Production Management involvement and follow-up: –Management should know first-hand what is going on in the back of the house –As management spends more time in the kitchen, more knowledge is gained, more confidence is acquired, and more respect is earned

19 Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved Employee Recognition An extremely important aspect of back-of-the- house management Recognizing employees for their efforts creates a positive work environment that motivates the staff to excel and to ultimately produce consistently better-quality food for the guests

20 Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved Purchasing Restaurant operators set up purchasing systems that determine the following: –Use of standards (product specs) –System of control for theft and loss –Par stock and reorder points –Who will do the purchasing? –Who will handle receiving, storage, and issuing?

21 Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved Food Cost Control Process Fig. 7-3

22 Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved Purchasing Product specification: Established standards for each product Par Stock: The stock level of a product that must be on hand at all times The person ordering should never be the same person receiving Purchase order: An order to purchase a certain quantity of an item at a specific price—comes as a result of the product specification

23 Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved Receiving, Storing, Issuing The purpose of receiving is to ensure the quantity, quality, and price are exactly as ordered Items should only be issued from the stores on an authorized requisition, signed by the appropriate person First In – First Out (FIFO) ensures stock rotation by placing the most recent purchases behind the previous purchases

24 Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved Budgeting Fixed costs are constant regardless of the volume of business –Fixed costs are rent/lease payments, interest, and depreciation Variable costs fluctuate with the volume of business –Variable costs include controllable expenses such as payroll, benefits, direct operating expense, music and entertainment, marketing and promotion, energy and utility, administrative, and repairs and maintenance

25 Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved Restaurant Accounting A balance sheet reflects how the assets and liabilities relate to the owner’s equity at a particular moment in time The Operating or Income Statement includes sales, cost of goods sold, gross profit, labor and overhead expenses, and net profit Managing the money to the bottom line requires careful scrutiny of all results, beginning with the big-ticket controllable expenses

26 Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved Operating ratios Operating ratios are industry norms that are applicable to each segment of the industry –Food cost percentage (cost/sales × 100 = food cost percentage) –Contribution margin (difference between the cost of the item and sale price) –Labor cost percentage (salaries and wages of employees, employee benefits, and their training) –Prime cost (combined food and labor costs) –Beverage cost percentage (calculated like the food cost percentage)

27 Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved Lease and Controllable Expenses Lease Costs should not be more than 5-8% of sales –Most leases are triple net—the lessee must pay for all alterations, insurance, utilities, and possible commercial fees (e.g., landscaping or parking upkeep) Controllable Expenses: All the expenses over which management and ownership have control –Salaries and wages (payroll) and related benefits; direct operating expenses such as music and entertainment; marketing, including sales, advertising, public relations, and promotions; heat, light, and power; administrative and general expenses; repairs and maintenance

28 Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved Restaurant Manager Job Analysis The National Restaurant Association (NRA) has formulated an analysis of the foodservice manager’s job by functional areas and tasks— this follows a natural sequence of functional areas from: –Human Resource Management –Financial Management –Administrative Management –Operations Management

29 Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved Recycling At the end of the night in most restaurants, leftover food, paper, bottles, and cardboard are typically placed in the trash Although separating garbage is dirty, many operators say making minor changes reduces trash and helps the budget

30 Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved Trends More flavorful food Increased take-out meals Increased food safety and sanitation Guests becoming more sophisticated More food court restaurants Steak houses becoming more popular Segments splitting into tiers Twin and multi-restaurant locations Quick-service restaurants in convenience stores The economy beginning to pick up

31 Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to Hospitality Management, 4e - Walker © 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All Rights Reserved The End


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