Presentation on theme: "Control Through the Purchasing Process"— Presentation transcript:
1Control Through the Purchasing Process chapter 8Control Through the Purchasing Process
2Opening QuestionsWhen purchasing food for yourself, what factors do you consider other than price?How do you decide where to shop?Where does price rank among those other factors?How do you decide how must food to buy?Do you buy exact quantities or estimate?Are the quantities impacted by packaging size?
3Factors for Selecting the Right Product QualityProcessingEquipment and Staff SkillsStorage Space and TypeShelf LifeBrand and MissionCost and Value
4Product Specification or “Spec” Defines acceptable parameters for a product.Eliminates miscommunication between purchaser and purveyorMay list productqualityyield gradesize, processingbrand nameorigindegree or ripenesscolor, pack sizecontainer type
5Purchase Specification A purchase specification is the product specification plus the delivery schedule and credit terms..
6Choosing Purveyors Choosing Purveyors Pricing Should be competitive in general (factoring delivery charges, too).ProductMust be able to supply products to spec and in a safe, wholesome form.ServiceShould be flexible, reliable, easy to work with, willing to correct errors, with a helpful salesperson and reasonable payment/ credit terms.
7Securing Product Pricing (and Other Shopping Means) Open BiddingSealed BiddingCost-Plus PurchasingContract PurchasingCo-Op BuyingStanding OrdersOne-Stop Shopping
8Calculating Purchase Quantities Forecastprediction of expected customersMenu Mixprediction of number of sales of each dish, often as a percent of total plate salesThe process for determining quantities to order differs for perishables (short shelf-life) and non-perishables (long shelf-life)
9Purchasing Quantities for Perishables Order only enough to get through to the next delivery to minimize spoilage, but with a small buffer.Take into account inventory on hand and forecast sales.Predicted Item Sales =Forecast Guests x Menu Mix Percent (as a decimal)
10Item Sales = Forecast Guests X Menu Mix % = 210 X 0.07 = 14.7 Example 8aA restaurant forecasts 210 guests. 7% of guests usually order the cream of asparagus soup. How many asparagus soups should the chef expect to sell?Item Sales = Forecast Guests X Menu Mix % = 210 X 0.07 = 14.7
11PerishablesIn forecasting dish counts, always round up (though the purchaser may add an additional buffer anyway)Use standard recipes to determine ingredient order quantities from predicted salesUse:AP = EP ÷ Y%
12Example 8bChef forecasts sales of 15 portions of asparagus soup. Calculate quantity of ingredients to order using recipe below.Asparagus SoupYield = 20 portionsIngredientQuantityYield %Asparagus Stems4#60%Leeks1#48%Butter8 oz100%Chicken Stock3 QtCream1 Qt
13Example 8b Asparagus Stems 4 # 1.33 5.33 # 60% IngredientOld Q (EP)C.F. (New ÷ Old)New Q (EP) (Old Q X CF)Y %AP Q to order (New Q ÷ Y%)Asparagus Stems4 #1.335.33 #60%save tops for elsewhere)8.88 #Leeks1 #1.33#48%2.77 #Butter8 oz10.64 oz100%Chick. Stock3 Qt4 QtCream1 Qt1.33 Qt
14Example 8b NotesMoney is saved if asparagus stems are used for soup and tips are used elsewhere.When two parts of an ingredient are shared by two recipes, the recipe with the greater quantity need determines the order quantity.Quantities will always be rounded up as a bufferIngredient need is not usually the final purchase order
15From Ingredient Need to Order Conduct a storeroom inventory of perishables and deduct expected usage before the next delivery arrives. What remains is forecast amount on hand at delivery arrival.Order = ingredient need – forecast amount on hand when delivery arrives
16Summary of Steps for Perishables Calculate forecast ingredient need for order periodCalculate expected inventory usage between order placement and order receiptConduct current inventory countInventory expected on hand at delivery = current inventory – expected inventory usageOrder = forecast ingredient need – inventory expected on hand at delivery
17Example 8cChef forecasts 170 guests between now and the next delivery arrival.Usually 14% of guests order spinach salad (the only dish using spinach).Spinach has Y% of 78% and each salad uses a 2 oz EP spinach serving.Purchaser is ordering for the following 3 day period to cover 520 forecast guests.Currently there are 5# of spinach in walk-in.How much spinach should be ordered?
18Example 8c (cont.) Ingredient need = 520 guests X 0.14 X 2oz/salad = oz (EP) ÷ 0.78 (Y%)= or 11.67# (AP)Forecast usage between now and delivery =170 guests X 0.14 X 2oz/salad= 47.6 oz (EP) ÷ 0.78 (Y%)= 61 oz or 3.81 # (AP)
19Example 8c (cont.) Amount expected on hand at delivery = 5# - 3.81# = 1.19#Order =11.67# #= 10.48# (11# rounded)
20Ordering and Technology Process for calculating order quantities by hand is complicated. Set up in a spreadsheet, it is easy!Purchaser just enters forecast guest counts for now to delivery and for the order period.Computer calculates preliminary order from standard recipes and menu mix information.Purchaser then just deducts current inventory from preliminary order.
21Two Non-Perishable Methods Perpetual Inventory Keeping a constantly current database of inventory by updating inventory sheets or cards every time a product is removed from or added to the storeroom.Periodic Inventory Counting inventory only at regular intervals (week, bi-week, month).vs.
22Periodic Inventory Purchasing System Forecast ingredient needs.Non-perishables are usually stable across order periods with adjustments made for holidays, weather, season or menu changes, major business shifts.For each ingredient, determine a safety net quantity (or %) to protect against business shifts and to sustain kitchen from order placement to receipt.3. Conduct a physical inventory on the regular schedule (which is just before the order is placed).
23Periodic Inventory Purchasing System 4. Quantity to Order (for each ingredient) =quantity needed for upcoming order periodquantity currently in inventorysafety net quantity.
24Example 8d Restaurant orders non-perishables every two weeks. It uses 22# of penne pasta weekly and management wants a 10# safety net in inventory at the end of each order period.Currently 12# of pasta in inventory.How much pasta should be ordered for the next two-week period?
25Example 8d (cont.)Ingredient need for period =22#/week X 2 weeks = 44# Order Quantity = 44# - 12# (current inventory) + 10# (safety net) = 42# If the purchaser cannot order exactly 42#, round up to the nearest pack size.
26Perpetual Inventory Purchasing System Inventory card or spreadsheet includes (for each ingredient) date and quantity added to or removed from storeroom, par stock, reorder point, reorder quantityPar Stockmaximum quantity to have in inventoryReorder PointLowest number of units of an item in inventory that triggers an order of that ingredientReorder Quantityamount of an ingredient a purchaser will order at the reorder point
27Perpetual Inventory Purchasing System To order, just place an order for an ingredient of the reorder quantity when it reaches the reorder point.In determining par stock value, it must be high enough to get through an order period but low enough to fit in the storeroom and not tie up excess money.
28Calculating Reorder Point Quantity Needed between Order and DeliveryDaily UsageDays between Order Placement and Delivery Receipt
29Calculating Reorder Point Quantity Needed between Order and DeliverySafety Net Quantity
30Quantity Needed between Order and Delivery Reorder QuantityReorder QuantityPar StockReorder PointQuantity Needed between Order and Delivery
31Example 8e Restaurant has par stock of 50 cans of kidney beans. It uses 3 cans per day.Management wants safety net of 9 cans in inventory at delivery.Order usually takes 2 days to arrive after placement.Determine the reorder pointand reorder quantity.
32Example 8e (cont.)Quantity Needed between Order and Delivery =Daily Usage X Days bet. Order & Delivery = 3 cans/day X 2 days = 6 cans
33Example 8e (cont.)Reorder Point =Quantity needed bet. order and delivery + Safety net = 6 cans + 9 cans = 15 cans
34Example 8e (cont.)Reorder Quantity =Par Stock– Reorder Point + Quantity Needed between order and delivery = 50 cans- 15 cans + 6 cans = 41 cans
35Perpetual Inventory Purchasing System When pack size does not match reorder quantity exactly, round down to the nearest pack size because par stock is a maximum quantity for the storeroom.
36Which Inventory Method to Use Perpetual Inventory offers better control but requires a dedicated employee in the storeroom to record every product removal and addition. Usually affordable only in large operations.Smaller businesses without a dedicated storeroom clerk usually use the periodic inventory system.
37Make-Buy AnalysisTo decide when to make a product from scratch vs. buying it premade:Factorscost of ingredients (cost per portion)labor (direct labor cost)energy cost in the decision-making process
38Make-Buy Analysis Cost per portion = recipe cost direct labor cost energy costnumber of portions
39Example 8fLasagna recipe yields 48 portions and costs $41.58 in ingredients. Employee earning $12/hour spends two hours making lasagna. Recipe’s energy costs are estimated at $ What is the recipe’s cost per portion for a make-buy analysis?Labor Cost = $12/hour X 2 hours = $24 Cost per portion = ($ $24 + $3.50) ÷ 48 = $1.44/portion
40Example 8gThe restaurant in example 8f can buy frozen lasagna, serving 30 portions, for $ It requires $2.00 in energy and only 15 minutes of the $12/hour cook’s time. What is the cost of the premade lasagna?Labor = 0.25 hours X $12/hour = $3 Cost per portion = ($28 + $3 + $2) ÷ 30 = $1.10/portion Premade ($1.10/portion) is cheaper than scratch version ($1.44/portion)
41Other Variables in Make-Buy Analysis Is quality of the two products similar or is one noticeably worse?If customers sense decline in quality, business will decreaseDoes the restaurant have the space and equipment to make the product from scratch?A necessary major financial investment to make something from scratch may negate cost savings