2FOOD SPECIFICATIONSWritten standards for food (food specifications) are set before a restaurant opens.The amounts to purchase are based on a forecast of sales.When in operation, par stocks (the reasonable amount to have on hand) & reorder points (the stock points that indicate more should be ordered) are established.
3STEPS IN A PURCHASING SYSTEM Determine the quality of food standards required to serve the market.Develop product specifications.Gather product-availability information.Have alternate suppliers in mind.Select a person to order and receive supplies.
4STEPS IN A PURCHASING SYSTEM Set up storage space for maximum utilization.Establish the amount needed to be stocked- par stock – each item.Set up inventory system.Decide on optimal delivery size to reduce cost of delivery & handling.Check all inventories for quality and quantity/weight.Tie inventory control and cost control system together.
5THE PURCHASING CYCLEA purchasing cycle can be set up that rolls along efficiently, a system that repeats itself day after day with minimal demands on the operator.Product specifications need only be reviewed, not reset, each time food is ordered.Par stock and reorder points are relatively fixed & changed only as sales volume changes appreciably or as the menu changes.Major suppliers are changed infrequently.
7FOOD QUALITY STANDARDS Standards for food quality are set to serve a particular market:Some operators serve fresh fish only, never frozen.Some restaurants use only fresh vegetables.
8BUYING BY SPECIFICATION Each operation needs a quality of food that fits its market.The quality needed varies with the market and also with the food item being produced.Canned vegetables used in a made-up dish need not be of fancy grade.Meat for grinding into hamburger may well come from U.S. good or even lower-graded meat and still be satisfactory.
9PAR STOCK & REORDER POINTS Based on quantity used, storage space available & availability of the product.Fast moving items require more stock.The operator with a fixed menu has an advantage in buying.Preparation of entrées can be done in terms of prepared items (i.e. so many trays stored under refrigeration).
10PURCHASING: Full-line purveyors: Carry a large line of supplies Offer more one stop shoppingSaves timeSimplified billingCo-op BuyingSupplies products at cost, plus enough of a markup to cover the cooperative’s cost.NonprofitLower cost than profit
11PURCHASING MEAT Principal factors in meat buying are: The cut of the meat: What part of the animal?The USDA grade of the meat: Fat content, tenderness & cost.The style/form: Carcass, wholesale cut, or ready-to-serve portion.
12PURCHASING FRESH FRUITS & VEGTABLES: Select freshly picked, mature items and use them as quickly as possible.Handle them as little as possible.Distinguish blemishes that affect appearance & those that affect quality.Check on maturity.Avoid those that are over ripe or show decay.Be conscious of size & count.Know sizes of containers & check on their contents.
13USDA WHOLESALE PRODUCE GRADES: U.S. Fancy: Applies to highly specialized produce- Rarely used.U.S. No. 1: Most widely used in trading produce from farm to market.U.S. Commercial: This grade applies to produce inferior to U.S. No. 1 but superior to U.S. No. 2.U.S. Combination: Combines percentages of U.S. No. 1 and U.S. No. 2.U.S. No. 2: Usually considered the lowest quality practical to ship- Poorer appearance and more waste than U.S. No. 1.U.S. No. 3: Produce used for highly specialized products.
14CANNED FRUITS & VEGTABLES Standards are FDA concerns.Labeling of ingredients are required on most items.Container must have ingredients listed in descending order by weight (some are mostly filler).Operators that frequently use canned items perform can cutting tests after picking season.Less expensive products may turn out to be superior.
15SELECTING THE RIGHT COFFEE People tend to like the coffee with which they grew up.Widely traveled people often prefer stronger coffee.Coffee served in restaurants is a blend.Most predominate is mountain grown.Generally coffees are divided into two types:Robust, heavier flavored.Mountain grown, lighter, milder.Coffee vendors often supply the restaurant operator with a coffee-making machine on a no-cost lease basis provided the operator agrees to buy all of his or her coffee from the vendor.