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GEP Retreat, 2008 Life Magazine mosier-biorefinery.jpg

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1 GEP Retreat, 2008 Life Magazine mosier-biorefinery.jpg Rabi H. Mohtar Director, Global Engineering Program Purdue - Moi Partnership for Water Resource Development April 2009 The Water Challenge: Key Development Issues

2 Mega Cities Water Conflicts and Transboundary Waters Economic Development / Growth Human Services Urbanization and Rural Development Poverty Impact Water Security Water Resources Management Water, Climate and Environment Food Crisis Water Supply and Sanitation Irrigation Financial Crisis Climate Change Energy, Food and Water Interactions Mohtar

3 Energy-Food-Natural Resources Continuum: System Example/Challenge Pricing, environmental quality Energy cost Energy Food production costs Bioenergy, energy cost Allocation Food Food production biomass Water Technology Social Pressure Economic Pressure Political Pressure Forces of Nature Mohtar

4 Projected water consumption by sector, 2000, 2025 and 2050 Source: IMPACT Model Projections

5 Trade‐ offs affecting Water Supply and Sanitation pricing Source Environment Directorate, OECD, Paris, France

6 Food 'Prisis' Dramatic increase in food prices last year triggered by: 1.High demand 2.High energy prices 3.Subsidized biofuel 4.Climate and weather variability World Bank, 2009

7 Global Water Withdrawal Data

8 Source: Investing in Irrigation: The AgWA Initiative for Africa, A. Subramanian, chair


10 Managing Water Under Climate ChangeUncertainty Projected % change in Runoff 2030 Climate change must not come at the cost of development. Goals: 1.Improve performance of water systems such as demand management measures. 2.Balance growth needs of developing countries with addressing climate change 3.Manage risks and uncertainties

11 The Purdue Water Initiative Overall Goal We propose to leverage existing efforts that is coordinating our broad based expertise in water research and provide a platform from which to position Purdue as a leader of global impact in addressing the water challenges. Units Represented Center for Environment, College of Agriculture, College of Engineering, College of Science, College of Liberal Arts, Communications/Media office, Indiana Water Institute, Network for Computational Nanotechnology, Purdue Climate Change Research Center, Mohtar

12 The Purdue Water Initiative 1.Develop comprehensive promotional material to highlight Purdue expertise and potential role in the water area. 2.Organize a Purdue University water summit (Fall 09). 3.Integrate the water initiative with Purdue’s global public policy institute and other campus units. 4.Develop a global communication and research platform for knowledge sharing and global outreach through launching a Water-Hub. 5.Deploy tools for managing and planning water resources. 6.Deploy technologies to improve water use efficiency at local and basin levels. 7.Develop and disseminate risk management strategies to manage climate change and its impact on water resources. Mohtar

13 Goal: Water security and equity of use for sustainable communities Strategic Plan Process: Infrastructure, Integration, and Synergies In Discovery, Learning, and Engagement Veterinary Medicine SciencesAgriculture Libraries and Information Technology Communications Engineering Technology Education Health & Kinesiology Consumer and Family Sciences Hospitality & Tourism Management Pharmacy Purdue - Moi Partnership for Water Resource Development Mohtar

14 Understanding the Multi-Scale Hydrologic System Mohtar 10 x km 2 km 2 100s m 2 mm Biogeochemical reactions Soil-structure interaction River routing Policy Watershed management Stream flow Policy Field management practices Preferential flow Contaminant Transport Erosion Dominant Processes Modeling across Transfer of Scale

15 Develop a modeling platform that will allow: Soil characterization and classification using soil mapping data, in-situ measurements, and transfer functions. The integration of soil moisture data, soil surface conditions, and climatic data, collected using various platforms and techniques (in- situ, remote sensing) at various spatiotemporal scales into a multiscale hydrologic model. The use of a physically based models to characterize soil water and land surface processes, at various scales. The ability to integrate the effects of scale specific processes on the behavior observed at different scales. The Ability to optimize initial soil characterization, model parameters, and multiscale processes integration using updated remote sensing data. Multiscale Hydrologic Modeling Platform Increasing Spatial Scale Mohtar

16 Online watershed delineation: data extraction Hydrologic model (Runoff map creation) Calculate the relative weights (RW) for three main selection criteria of two contrasting scenarios Mohtar

17 The relative weight for the three criteria can be calculated per user choice of their level of importance in the final decision. Mohtar

18 CEAP: Land use and conservation evaluation in pasture dominated watersheds Quantify linkages among nutrient management, land use, BMP implementation, and water quality Develop comprehensive cost-benefit analyses of water quality management practices to optimize BMP implementation, agricultural production, and water quality improvement Evaluating various social/economic factors that promote/impede conservation adoption Develop education/demonstration programs 1994 Current 1994 Curren t I. Chaubey and J. Frankenberger

19 Watershed management support systems Various projects funded by USDA-CSREES, USGS, and IARP Multidisciplinary research and education projects to develop and disseminate land use management systems to evaluate a range of agricultural and environmental policy alternatives Utilizing various tools developed in the department Many of these tools are available on-line benefiting larger stakeholder community I. Chaubey and J. Frankenberger

20 Disinfection of Drinking Water Using Solar UV: A Low-Cost System to Inactivate Microbial Pathogens in Drinking Water in Rural Sub-Saharan African Countries Eric G. Mbonimpa & Ernest R. Blatchley III School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN Objectives Definition of solar UV availability Quantification of microbial dose-response behavior for solar UV wavelengths Development of solar UV collector system Development of solar UV reactor

21 The Wildlife-Livestock Interface Questions ? What is the probability of disease transmission in this interface What is the structure of this interface ? Which direction transmission is going? Which direction is more important ? How important is this interface? Practical prevention measures? Probability of disease transmission: Frequency of direct or indirect contact Animal density (both wildlife and domestic) Animal movement Disease and agent characteristics Interface Structure Topography (forest, pasture, plain, mountain) Infrastructure (open barns, close barns etc) Agent characteristics (transmission with wind, water, etc) Seasonality (winter, drought) Eran Raizman, Vet Medicine

22 Tenure and Soil Conservation Soil and water conservation techniques can have dramatic effects on yields and the environment. Conservation techniques need to be adapted to the property rights held by farmers Rock bunds, terraces and other soil conservation structures can have dramatic effects on yields and on soil erosion. Photo: J. Lowenberg-DeBoer, Donsin, BF Socio-Economic Issues in Land Tenure and Soil Conservation J. Lowenberg-DeBoer, Agricultural Economics Dept., Int’l Program in Agric Grass bands are traditionally used to mark field borders The grass is used for forage, thatch and mat making Grass bands do not convey property rights

23 College of Consumer & Family Sciences (CFS) Four Academic Department: – Hospitality & Tourism Management – Consumer Science & Retailing – Child Development & Family Studies – Food & Nutrition +10 Research Centers, Labs Extension

24 Hospitality & Tourism Management # 1 ranked undergraduate and Ph.D. programs Three emphases/research centers – Tourism, Hotel/Lodging, Foodservice Potential collaboration with Moi University – Areas of Moi interest – Sustainable tourism, community- based tourism – Curriculum, joint research, community engagement

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