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1 Port Klang Initial Risk Assessment Presentation for ENVM 8012.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Port Klang Initial Risk Assessment Presentation for ENVM 8012."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Port Klang Initial Risk Assessment Presentation for ENVM 8012

2 2 Contents 1. Develop Analysis Plan 2. Risk assessment 3. Retrospective 4. Prospective 5. Socioeconomic drivers assessment 6. Data gaps 7. Uncertainties & Recommendations

3 3 WHOM - This project was initially organized by GEF/UNDP/IMO Regional Program on Building Partnerships in Environmental Management of the Seas of East Asia (PEMSEA). PEMSEA building up partners with governments, agencies and sectors to strengthen environmental management capacity Develop Analysis Plan GEF: The Global Environment Facility UNDP: United Nations Development Programme IMO: International Maritime Organization

4 4 HOW – Conduct Initial Risk Assessment with collaboration with several government departments. HOW – Conduct Initial Risk Assessment with collaboration with several government departments. WHY – economic growth  contaminants Develop Analysis Plan

5 5 WHERE - Port Klang located at Malaysia. The Project area cover 1,485 km 2 with population of 742,837 in the year 2000 which was approx. 500 people per km 2. The coastlines for both Klang and Kuala Langat are km and 48 km respectively. Develop Analysis Plan BBC (2005), newsid_ /newsid_ / stm

6 6 WHAT – to determine the effects of factors derived from human activities on human and ecological targets in the Port Klang area. Specifically, 6 objectives: 1. To evaluate the impacts of various pollutants; 2. To identify activities that contribute to pollution; 3. To identify gaps and uncertainties; 4. To make recommendations; 5. To identify agencies and institutions in the long-term management, 6. To identify priority concerns to be addressed under risk management. Develop Analysis Plan

7 7 2 methodologies can be used to protecting the environmental and human health Hazard Based Approach Hazard Based Approach Risk Based Approach Risk Based Approach Hazard Based Approach => Risk Based Approach 2 risk assessments approach were used in this project, Retrospective Risk Assessment, and Retrospective Risk Assessment, and Prospective Risk Assessment Prospective Risk Assessment Develop Analysis Plan

8 8 2. Risk Assessment Data in this presentation are from ‘Port Klang Integrated Coastal Management National Demonstration Project’, Selangor Waters Management Authority, Shah Alam, Selangor Malaysia. 2005

9 9 Problem Formulation An ecological risk assessment starts with the formulation of the problem. An ecological risk assessment starts with the formulation of the problem. Activities included in this stage are the definition of the nature of the problem. Activities included in this stage are the definition of the nature of the problem. Ecological Risk Assessment

10 10 Problem Formulation The Source What is the source? Stressors What types of stressors are presented? Exposure When? For how long? What was the intensity and distribution? Ecosystem at risk What ecosystems are at risk? Where? Why? Possible ecological effects What are the possible effects associated to the pointed stressors?

11 11 3. Retrospective Assessment

12 12 3. Retrospective Analysis 4 Aspects: 4 Aspects: FisheriesFisheries AquacultureAquaculture MangrovesMangroves WildlifeWildlife Sources of DataSources of Data Various studiesVarious studies ReportsReports ProjectsProjects

13 13 3. Retrospective Analysis for Fisheries Result Changes Observed Amount of fish landing Identified Agents 1990 – 1993 : ↓ 65% ( to metric tons) Likely: Poor technology Possibly: Marine water pollution Incidence of oil spills Exploitation of mangroves 1993 – 2000: ↑ 10 times ( to 1, metric tons) Likely: Enhanced technology ↑ fishing gears ↑ fishing forks

14 14 3. Retrospective Analysis for Aquaculture Result Changes Observed Amount of production Identified Agents 1990 – 1993 : ↓ 46% (1, to metric tons) Unsuitable soil for aquaculture Water contamination Diseases 1993 – 2000: ↑ 1.9 times ( to 1, metric tons) Enhanced Technology Controlled water contamination Controlled diseases ↑ pond areas

15 15 3. Retrospective Analysis for Mangroves Result Changes Observed (Area) Identified Agents Klang Island : ↓ 4% : ↓ 7.9% Likely: Land Reclamation Possibly: Suspended solids Unknown: Pollution, sedimentation Kapar : ↓ 91.5% (4,865 to 410 ha)

16 16 3. Retrospective Analysis for Wildlife Result Changes Observed (no. of species) Identified Agents Water birds : ↓ 88.5% (131 → 15) Most Likely: Time of count not coincide with bird migratory period Likely: New environment needs time to re-establish Possibly: Illegal hunting of birds Unknown: Environmental pollution : ↓ 26.6% (15 → 11) : no change (11 → 11)

17 17Result Changes Observed (no. of species) Identified Agents Aquatic Fauna Peat swamp forest Primary Forest Mangrove Forest Land clearing Reclamation Selective logging Mining Agriculture hunting Mammals Decline no. of species in the above habitat 3. Retrospective Analysis for Wildlife

18 18 3. Retrospective Risk Assessment Cannot establish the relationship between changes in fisheries and increased fishing intensity Cannot establish the relationship between changes in fisheries and increased fishing intensity Change in aquaculture production because of better technology, control of water contamination Change in aquaculture production because of better technology, control of water contamination Decline in mangrove cover because of degazettment and reclamation Decline in mangrove cover because of degazettment and reclamation Decline in mammals, birds and freshwater fish due to loss or degradation of habitats and pollution Decline in mammals, birds and freshwater fish due to loss or degradation of habitats and pollution

19 19 4. Prospective Risk Assessment

20 20 Prospective Risk Assessment Risk Quotient (RQ) = Predicted Environmental Concentration (PEC) Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC) RQ < 1 Low Risk RQ ≧ 1  High Risk  Management action required!

21 21 Case Study – Water Column 5 Coastal Areas in Klang - Pantai Morib - Kuala Langat at Jugra - Kuala Langat - Kuala Klang - Selat Klang Utara

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27 27 5. Risk and Socio-economic Drivers

28 28 Assessment of Socioeconomic Drivers ResultImpactsChanges Identified Agents -Loss of habitats & species -Human health -Reduced biodiversity Demography: Klang Island : ↑ 4.6% Kuala Langat : ↑ 3.8% -Solid and liquid waste, -Sludge, -Air pollution, -E. Coli -Waste oil Waste Management: Klang Island & Kuala Langat - Waste generations ↑ 18%tons/day - Landfills areas ↓ over 30%ha

29 29 Assessment of Socioeconomic Drivers ResultImpactsChanges Identified Agents -Loss and degradation of habitats and species -Reduced biodiversity -Sedimentation-Siltation -Forest fire Land-use: Klang Island & Kuala Langat - ↑ agricultural lands, urban & industrial areas - ↓ forest cover -Over-exploitation -Land clearing and reclamation Agriculture: Klang Island & Kuala Langat - ↓ use of land - ↑ yields -Nutrients -Organic liquid waste -Pesticides,-Sediments -illegal clearing

30 30 Assessment of Socioeconomic Drivers ResultImpactsChanges Identified Agents -Contaminated seafood -Food poisoning -Vector-borne diseases Human Health: - Poor hygiene practices - Contamination -Pathogens -Chemical contaminants

31 31 6. Data Gaps

32 32 Data Gaps More appropriate indicators More appropriate indicators More comprehensive and quantitative assessment of biodiversity More comprehensive and quantitative assessment of biodiversity Information for the impacts on living aquatic resources Information for the impacts on living aquatic resources Data on nutrients in coastal water, oil and grease in river water, coliform in seafood Data on nutrients in coastal water, oil and grease in river water, coliform in seafood heavy metals in sediment and biota, and pesticides and organotins in all media heavy metals in sediment and biota, and pesticides and organotins in all media

33 33 Data Gaps (cont’d) Data on oil fraction from petrogenic and biogenic sources Data on oil fraction from petrogenic and biogenic sources Standards for marine water quality are not very protective Standards for marine water quality are not very protective Linkage between food and water-borne diseases to potential contamination of aquatic food products from pathogens and chemical compounds Linkage between food and water-borne diseases to potential contamination of aquatic food products from pathogens and chemical compounds Linkage between particular socio-economic activities to the identified priority environment concerns Linkage between particular socio-economic activities to the identified priority environment concerns

34 34 7. Uncertainties & Recommendations

35 35 Uncertainties RQ approach is not suitable for dealing with some risks RQ approach is not suitable for dealing with some risks No model was used to help to understand the risk No model was used to help to understand the risk Detailed assessment is needed to distinguish between localised and coastal wide conditions Detailed assessment is needed to distinguish between localised and coastal wide conditions Suitability of the PNECs being used Suitability of the PNECs being used Application of quantitative uncertainty analyses Application of quantitative uncertainty analyses

36 36 Recommendations On socio-economic drivers: On socio-economic drivers: further assessments on waste management, industrial development, agriculture and land use On Ecological and Human Health Risks: On Ecological and Human Health Risks: 1. Prioritize contaminants for risk management 2. Prioritize the management of sewage discharge 3. Control for discharges of untreated wastes in the coastal area starting from the catchments 4. Conduct systematic monitoring on exposure to contaminants of the seafood 5. Collect the data on heavy metals, pesticides and TBT in water column, sediment and seafood in the coastal areas

37 37 On the river systems: On the river systems: 1. Need assessment for oil and grease 2. Risk assessment and management for the river systems 3. Relating the sources of risk to specific activities 4. Formulate risk reduction measures On the whole water system: On the whole water system: 1. Apply the RQ approach to carry out a more detailed risk assessment of the rivers and coastal waters in Selangor 2. Review of the standard of PNECs used Recommendations

38 38 On resources and habitats: Fisheries Fisheries 1. Use of CPUE, stock density, demersal biomass and change in catch composition to monitor and assessment 2. Estimate the MSY (maximum sustainable yield) and to determine the current condition 3. Evaluate the management framework Recommendations

39 39 On resources and habitats: Aquaculture Aquaculture 1. Evaluate, minimize and control the current impacts 2. Develop environment-friendly practices 3. Designate aquaculture zone 4. Collect data for better assessment and management Recommendations

40 40 On resources and habitats: Mangroves Mangroves 1. To assess the economic value and the effects of reduction or degradation of mangrove ecosystems 2. Evaluate the degazettement of some portions of the forest reserves 3. Use benefits and costs approach to evaluate reclamation and mangrove conversion 4. Promote mangrove reforestation 5. Strengthen the law enforcement Recommendations

41 41 On resources and habitats: Widlife Widlife Verify the reported decline in species and the cause-effect relationships On Air Quality On Air Quality 1. Detailed assessment to identify the significant contributor to the pollution 2. To develop and implement control of emissions Recommendations

42 42 Recommended research areas : Hydrodynamics study to study the sediment load Hydrodynamics study to study the sediment load To determine the level of impacts at pollution hotspots To determine the level of impacts at pollution hotspots Toxicology study for seafood Toxicology study for seafood Poverty, industrial development and their linkages to environmental management Poverty, industrial development and their linkages to environmental management Recommendations

43 43 Need to develop action plans for: Integrated land- and water-use Zoning Integrated land- and water-use Zoning Environmental investment such as clean technologies, waste management facilities Environmental investment such as clean technologies, waste management facilities Integrated Environmental Monitoring Programme for a scientific basis management Integrated Environmental Monitoring Programme for a scientific basis management Collaboration and Institutional Arrangements with NGOs, Univerities etc. for development and implementation of risk management strategies Collaboration and Institutional Arrangements with NGOs, Univerities etc. for development and implementation of risk management strategies Recommendations

44 44 - holistic approach -use of biomaker -consider the dynamic nature of the ecosystem Furthermore

45 45 The END. Thank You. Q & A

46 46 References BBC News (2005) _ /newsid_ / stm


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