FOREST AND WILDLIFE Skanda S Shenoy X standard Vikasa High School Alkola, Shimoga – 577 204
WILD LIFE INTRUDUCTION : Indian is unique in having immense natural beauty is its different lions and in possessing a rich and diverse wild life fauna Indian wild life is incomparable in its variety for example, the tiger, the lion and the leopard room about in the same country elephants and the one horned rhinoceros are found here in abundance. India has more types of the graceful deer and cats than any other country in the world. In facts, India includes more than 120 families of terrestrial vertebrates. It has been estimated that there are more than 400 species of mammals, 1200 species of Birds, more than 350 Species of Reptiles and more that 29,70,000 species of insects in India
REASONS FOR WILD LIFE The wild life has also been used commercially to earn a lot of money in on way or the other. The wild life is the cultural asset of a country like India. It has deep rooted effect on art sculpture, literature and religion of the country.
CONSERVATION MEASURES: For the preservation of species wild life management staff should have a correct idea about the exact habitat which the species under consideration needs. Natural habitat of wild animals should be carefully protected. Shooting and hunting of endangered species should be totally banned. Habitats of wild life should be improved by constructing water holes, saltlicks and by raising plantation of better and nourishing fodder grasses and trees.
MODES OF WILD LIFE CONSERVATION Protected species of Indian wild life are here they are, white eyed buck, black buck, Four horen antelope, golden cat, snow leopard, great Indian bustard, Monitor lizard, winter lizard, leathery turtle, marsh crocodile etc.
REASONS FOR DEPLETION OF WILD LIFE Destruction of wild plants of forests for timber, charcoal and firewood often deprives wild animals their most palatable food and affects their survival. Absence of covers or shelter to wild animals. Noise pollution by different transport media and polluting river water have adversely affected wild animals. Hunting methods of all kinds and for any purpose (that is, food, recreation, fur, plumage, tusk, horn etc.) have caused destruction of wild life.
SOME INDIAN SANCTUARIES AND NATIONAL PARKS Kaziranga Wildlife Sanctuary. Manas Wild life Sanctuary. Jaldapara Wildlife Sanctuary. Mundanthurai Sanctuary Ranganthittoo Bird Sanctuary. Bandipur Wildlife Sanctuary. Cotigao Wildlife Sanctuary. Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary. Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary Kolameru Bird Sanctuary Guindy Deer Park. Sesan Gir Sariska Chilka Lake Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary. Daachigam Wildlife Sanctuary.
WILD LIFE RESEARCH IN INDIA Wildlife Institute of India (WII) covers various aspects of applied research on wild life for different ecological and geographical regions of the country. Show leopard (Ladakh), Nilgiri Langur (Tamil Nadu), Grizzled gaint squirrel (Tamil Nadu), monitoring of reintroduced Mugger crocodiles (Andhra Pradesh) and monitoring of reintroduced Rhinoceros (Dudhwa, U.P) are the main studies completed by the institute.
WILD LIFE EDUCATION AND TRAINING Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun organized 9 month PG Diploma and three months Certificate courses on wild life for protected area managers at the professional and Field technician level during 1991-92. The Institute also organized a Zoo Management course for Middle Level Managers and Technicians and 4 week course for 16 trainees from Zoos and wild life organizations from different states.
FOREST INTRODUCTION: A plant community predominantly of trees and other vegetation usually with a closed canopy is called forest. Today forest may be regarded as any land managed for the diverse purpose of forestry, whether covered with trees shrubs, climbers, lions etc or not the word jungle is used to describe a collection of trees, shrubs etc that are not grown in a regular manner.
IMPORTANCE OF FOREST Forest are the only source of timbers, wood fuel, bamboos and a rich source of a variety of valuable products. They guard against erosion of land, damage of water sheds, floods and segmentation. The provide shelter to the wildlife. Above all, forest also provide facility of the grazing of live stocks and produce a large number of products of commercial as well as industrial importance.
DEFORESTATION Forest in developing countries are going to be reduced at an alarming rate. This process of deforestation is a serious threat to economy, quality of life and future of the environment in our country. The important causes of deforestation in India are,
Rapid explosion of human and livestock population Expansion of agricultural croplands for farming and enhanced grazing by cattle. Increased demand for fuel wood, timber, wooden crates, paper, newsprint’s, patter boards, medicines etc.
AFFORESTATION The development of forests on wastelands is usually known as afforestation In India, Wasteland Development Programme is being and overseen by National Wastelands development Board (NWDB) which has adopted a mission approach for enlisting people’s participation, harnessing inputs of science and technology and achieving inter disciplinary co- ordination in the programme, planning and implementation.
FOREST RESEARCH IN INDIA In India, India Council of Forest Research and Education (ICFRE) is an autonomous body with the Ministry of Environment and Forests, which holds the mandate to organize, direct and manage research and education in the fields of forestry. There are five important research institutes, they are, Forest Research Institute (FRI), Dehradun. Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding, Coimbatore Institute of Wood Science and Technology, Bangalore
CONSERVATION Conservation is the most efficient and most beneficial utilization of natural resources and Is one of the most significant applications of ecology. Conservation is mainly concerned with the management of the natural resources of the earth, taking into consideration their proper use, preservation and protection from destructive influences and misuse etc.