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BLR’s Safety Training Presentations Cranes and Slings 29 CFR 1910.179 and 184 Safe Crane Operating Procedures Inspections of Cranes & Slings The Appropriate.

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Presentation on theme: "BLR’s Safety Training Presentations Cranes and Slings 29 CFR 1910.179 and 184 Safe Crane Operating Procedures Inspections of Cranes & Slings The Appropriate."— Presentation transcript:

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2 BLR’s Safety Training Presentations Cranes and Slings 29 CFR and 184 Safe Crane Operating Procedures Inspections of Cranes & Slings The Appropriate Use of Slings

3 Cranes Are Everywhere Cranes, derricks, and jib hoists are used in almost every industrial setting (tower cranes in construction & shipyards) Cranes can be found on most construction sites (small cranes, derricks & jibs in garages, trucks & vans)

4 Crane and Sling Goals Crane hazards, inspection, and operations Sling inspection and use Quiz Free Standing Jib Cranes Wall Cantilever Jib Cranes Wall Bracket Jib Cranes Work Station Bridge Cranes Portable Gantry Cranes Mast Type Jib Cranes Ceiling mounted Bridge Cranes

5 Crane Hazards Crane, sling, or hook could fail if overloaded (any accident: serious injuries, damage) Load could flip, turn, or release suddenly if not attached correctly (striking a nearby person or object) People or objects could be struck by the load

6 Crane Capacity Rated capacity clearly marked on each side of the crane If more than one hoisting unit, each hoist must be marked with rated capacity Markings clearly legible from the ground (and from the operator’s station)

7 Crane Inspections Daily inspections and logged-monthly inspections (by the operator) include: – Operating mechanisms to ensure proper working order – Air or hydraulic systems for leaks – Hoist chains/ropes for wear, twisting, distortion Periodic (at least yearly) inspections: – Deformed, cracked, or corroded components – Loose bolts or rivets – Wear on brakes, chain drive sprocket

8 General Operating Rules Only trained, designated operators are permitted to operate cranes A crane must not be loaded beyond its rated capacity Follow all safe operating procedures

9 Attaching the Load Hoist chain/rope free of kinks or twists Do not wrap hoist chain/rope around the load Attach the load to the load block hook with slings or other approved devices

10 Hooks Safety latch or clip (preventing the hook from twisting out of the ring) Load in center of hook’s curve Picking up load with the hook’s tip causes it to open up and weaken Replace hooks that are bent open (15% of the normal throat) or twisted (10% from the plane)

11 Moving the Load Be sure the hook and hoist are directly over the load (or load will move, or swing) Ensure that chains/ropes/slings are not twisted (or load will twist, rotate, or flip) Ensure that the load is well secured and balanced When traveling, keep the load close to the floor

12 Hoisting Safety Avoid sudden acceleration or deceleration (extra stress or load, on the crane and slings) Watch for obstructions Never leave controls with load suspended Do not use cranes for side pulls (extra strain and swing) Never lower the load below the point where less than two full wraps of rope remain on the hoisting drum (never place the hoisting hook on the ground)

13 Hoisting and People Never carry loads over people Do not hoist, lower, or travel a load when an employee is on the load or hook When two or more cranes are lifting a load, put one qualified person in charge

14 Hand Signals Hoist up (index finger up, rotating the wrist) Hoist down (index finger down, rotating the wrist) Stop (close fist) Travel (extend arm with fingers up and motion in the direction of travel)

15 Crane and Sling Goals Crane hazards, inspection, and operations Sling inspection and use Quiz

16 Sling Types Eye to eye versus endless Steel chains Wire rope or steel cable Metal mesh Fiber rope (natural or synthetic) Synthetic mesh

17 Operator Sling Inspections Each day before use by a trained operator Check slings and attachments for damage Immediately remove damaged and defective slings from service

18 Thorough Sling Inspections At least annually (documented), performed by a certified inspector Chains Wire rope Metal mesh Fiber rope Synthetic web

19 Sling Rules Never load beyond rated capacity Label properly Never shorten with knots, bolts, or any other devices Protect from sharp edges Attach securely to the load

20 Sling Rules (cont.) Protect hands and fingers Use care when pulling a sling Never drag a sling Do not use a damaged or defective sling

21 Sling Storage Hang slings on a wall Never leave on the ground Never expose to water, welding sparks, chemicals, etc.

22 Sling Hitches Vertical Choker Basket Choker Hitch Vertical Hitch Basket Hitch

23 Sling Angles Ratings based on a vertical hang Slings hung >= 5° angle from vertical Slings used at angles should be checked for capacity

24 Assume 1,000 lb. load lifted with 2 slings Slings vertical: 500 lb. each Slings 45° from vertical: 707 lb. each Slings 60° from vertical: 1,000 lb. each Slings 75° from vertical: 1,930 lb. each Angle Examples 1,000 lb.

25 Crane and Sling Goals Crane hazards, inspection, and operations Sling inspection and use Quiz

26 Summary Only trained and authorized operators allowed to use a crane Inspect both crane and slings before use Properly secure the load and try to keep slings vertical Keep all people away from a load while it is being hoisted or moved

27 Be Safe! Tony Soares, Safety Director Compensation Solutions, Inc. Tel: Ext. 192

28 Quiz 1.When do slings need to be inspected? __________ 2.Wrapping the hoist’s chain/rope around the load is a safe way to hitch a load. True or False 3.Name two things on a crane that need to be inspected each day: ___________and ___________. 4.What prevents a hook from becoming disconnected from the load? _____________________________ 5.Each crane must be clearly marked with its rated capacity. True or False

29 Quiz (cont.) 6.Lift load high when traveling in order to avoid people or objects. True or False 7.The best way to shorten a chain sling is with a strong bolt through two links. True or False 8.When using a basket hitch, the load must be properly balanced. True or False 9.What causes slings to be subjected to loads in addition to the weight of the object? __________ 10.What should be attached to every sling? __________

30 Quiz Answers 1.Inspect slings each day before they are used. 2.False. Never wrap the hoist’s chain/rope around the load. 3.Daily crane inspections include operating mechanisms, air/hydraulics, hoist chains/ropes. 4.A safety latch or clip prevents the hook from disconnecting from the load. 5.True. Cranes must be clearly marked with their rated capacity.

31 Quiz Answers (cont.) 6.False. Travel with the load as near to the ground as possible. 7.False. Never shorten a sling with a bolt or a knot. 8.True. A basket hitch requires a balanced load. 9.Hanging slings at angles causes them to be subjected to horizontal forces. 10. A label with the sling’s rated capacity.


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