Presentation on theme: "Summary of Text rules. Systems Of Measurements UnitAbbreviationEquivalents gramg1 g = 1,000 mg milligrammg1 mg = 1,000 mcg = 0.001 g microgrammcg (or."— Presentation transcript:
UnitAbbreviationEquivalents gramg1 g = 1,000 mg milligrammg1 mg = 1,000 mcg = 0.001 g microgrammcg (or µg)1 mcg = 0.001 mg = 0.000001 g kilogramkg1 kg = 1,000 g Weight
UnitAbbreviatio n Equivalents literL (or ℓ)1 L = 1,000 mL millilitermL (or mℓ)1 mL = 0.001 L = 1 cc cubic centimeter cc1 cc = 1 mL = 0.001 L Volume
UnitAbbreviationEquivalents dropgtt teaspoont (or tsp)5 mL tablespoonT (or tbs)1 T = 3 t ounce (fluid)oz2 T = 1 oz ounce (weight)oz1 lb = 16 oz cup 1 cup = 8 oz or 240mL pintpt1 pt = 2 cups quartqt1 qt = 4 cups = 2 pt
Due to information from our clinical partners and the Board of Nursing the following rule was developed. We will accept documentation in the form of Roman numerals, Arabic numbers, decimals as well as fractions.
Traditional time and international time are the same hours starting with 1:00 AM (0100) through 12:59 PM (1259). Minutes after 12:00 AM (midnight) and before 1:00 AM are 0001 through 0059 in international time.
Hours starting with 1:00 PM through 12:00 AM (midnight) are 12 h greater in international time (1300 through 2400) International time is designated by a unique four-digit number (colon’s are not used)
Math Tip between the hours of 1:00 PM (1300) and 12:00 AM (2400), add 1200 to traditional time to find the equivalent international time; subtract 1200 from international time to convert to equivalent traditional time.
Example 1 3:00 PM = 3:00 + 1200 = 1500 Example 2 2212 = 2212 – 1200 = 10:12 PM Addition review questions p 94
Convert between Fahrenheit and Celsius temperatures:
Convert 95˚ F to Celsius (First subtract 32 then divide the result by 1.8)
Medicine cup 1 fluid ounce or 30mL capacity for oral liquids. Calibrated to measure teaspoons and tablespoons Amounts less than 2.5 mL need to be measured in a smaller device, i.e. oral syringe 30 mL = 1 ounce 5 mL = 1 teaspoon 15 mL = 1 tablespoon
Calibrations read from top to the black ring of the suction plunger Calibrated in milliliters for each tenth Maximum volume administered in any one site is 3mL Larger volumes of medications can be delivered in divided doses or added to IV infusions or administered IV push, therefore, syringes with 5,6,10, and 12 mL may be used
Luerlock syringe hub Needle Barrel Rubber plunger tip Plunger
Needle’s gauge is it’s interior diameter. Lower the number the larger the diameter; 18-gauge needle is wider than a 22 gauge. The gauge depends on the viscosity (thickness) of the medication as well as the site. The viscous the solution and deeper injections require larger needles (lower gauge number) Injection site (area of tissue to be reached) will determine the length to be used.
TYPEAGENEEDLE SIZE GAUGE(G) NEEDLE LENGTH MAXIMUM INJECTION AMOUNT LOCATION ID Intraderm al All ages25 to 26 G 1/4 to 5/8 0.1 mLInterior aspect of forearm Subcut1 to 12 months 23 to 27 G 5/8 0.5 mLFatty tissue over lateral thigh muscle Subcut12 months to adult 23 to 27 G½ to ¾ 5/8 most common 0.5 to 1mL Fatty tissue over anterior lateral thigh muscle, triceps, or abdomen IMInfant to child 22 to 25 G5/8 to 1 inch 0.5 to 1 mL Vastus Lateralis IMAdult21 to 25 G1 to 1 ½ inches 2 to 3 mL 0.5 to 1 mL Ventroglueal Deltoid
Brand, trade, proprietary Manufacturer’s name for a drug. It is usually the most prominent word on the drug label Generic Established, nonproprietary name appears directly under the brand name. Sometimes it can be place inside
Step 1 Convert Be sure that all measurements are in the same system and all units are in the same size, converting when necessary Step 2 Think Carefully consider what is the reasonable amount to administer Step 3 Calculate Dosage
Ordered: Flagyl 0.75 g p.o t.i.d You need to convert the 0.75 g to mg prior to calculating amount that you will be administering 0.75 g = 750 mg
Math Tips When solving dosage problems for drugs supplied in tablets or capsules, Q (quantity) is always 1 because the supply dosage is per 1 tablet or capsule. Therefore, Q = 1 tablet or capsule The maximum number of tablets or capsules for a single dose is usually 3.
Do not always rely on a formula. Always estimate what is a reasonable amount of the drug to be administered. This helps to identify if the dosages calculated are reasonable and sound.
Maximum dosage Average 150 lb adult = 3 mL Maximum for deltoid site is 2 Children age 6-12 years = 2 mL Children birth to age 5 years = 1 mL
Parenteral dosages Round amount to be administered to tenths if amount greater than 1 mL. Use a 3 mL syringe Amounts less than 1 mL rounded to hundredths. Use a 1 mL syringe for all amounts less than 0.5 mL
Parenteral dosages Amounts of 0.5 mL to 1 mL calculated in tenths can be accurately measured in either a 1 mL or a 3 mL syringe
Brand Name Storage Expiration Date Type Generic Name Species Manufacturer Concentration
Supply dosage of insulin is 100 units per mL Abbreviated on label as U-100 Syringe must also be U-100
Accuracy is critical Nurses must understand and correctly interpret insulin order and label The correct syringe must be selecte d
40 units NPH Units-100 insulin 12 units Regular Units -100 insulin Total insulin dosage = 52 units
1.Inject 30 units of air. 2. Inject 10 units of air.
3. Withdraw 10 units regular. 4. Withdraw 30 units NPH for a total of 40 units.
1) Inject 30 U air 2) Inject 10 U air 3) Withdraw 10 U Regular 4) Withdraw 30 U NPH For a total of 40 U
When a fraction expresses the strength of a solution, made from a liquid concentration 1. The numerator of the fraction is the number of parts of the solute. 2. The denominator of the fraction is the total number of parts of the solution. 3. The difference between the denominator(final solution) and the numerator (parts of solute) is the number of parts of solvent.
Solute- a concentrated or solid substance to be dissolved or diluted. Solvent- is the diluent used to dissolve the solute Solution- the resulting mixture of a solute plus a solvent
Example ¼ strength reconstituted OJ made from canned frozen concentrate ¼ strength =1 part frozen juice concentrate 4 parts total reconstituted OJ 1 part -OJ concentrate (solute, numerator) 4 parts- total reconstituted OJ ( solution, denominator) 4-1 = 3 parts water (solvent)
Example 1 ⁄ 3 strength formula 1 part concentrate formula (solute) 3 parts total solution 3-1= 2 parts solvent (water)
Remember to convert all fluids to the same equivalent when necessary. Example: Order Ensure ¼ strength 120mL for 3 feedings (Stock 4 fl oz can) Step 1 convert fluid to same equivalent 4 fl oz x 30mL/fl oz = 120mL ensure concentrate
Step 2 calculate solute, solvent, and total solution 1 part solute(ensure) of 360 = 90 mL 4 parts solution ( solute and solvent) (3 feeding of 120 mL ¼ feeding = 120 x 3= 360 mL) 4-1= 3 parts solvent 270mL
Convert child’s weight from lb.'s to kg’s and round answer to tenths Example 45lb ÷ 2.2 lb/kg= 20.45 rounded to 20.5 Example Convert 10 lb 12 oz to kg First convert ounces to lb 12 oz ÷16 oz/lb= 12/16 = ¾ lb= 0.75 lb 10.75 lb ÷ 2.2 lb/kg = 4.88 rounded to 4.9
Second step: multiply mg/kg by child’s weight in kg. Example Order Morphine Sulfate 0.05 mg/kg per dose Childs weight 35.9 kg 0.05 mg/kg/dose x 35.9 kg = 1.79 mg/dose Rounded to 1.8 mg/dose
Physician orders: ◦ D 5 W IV at 125 mL per hour Infusion set is calibrated for a drop factor of 10 drops per mL Calculate IV flow rate in drops per min Notice that the mL cancel out, leaving drops per min
6 1 Use your watch to count drops and adjust roller clamp to deliver 21 drops per min
Order: D 5 W NS IV at 50 mL per h Drop factor is 60 drops per mL Notice order, 50 mL per hour, is the same as the flow rate of 50 drops per min when drop factor is 60 drops per mL