Presentation on theme: "Key issues in DEIS schools in Ireland: a reference point for the US experience? Towson University, Baltimore, Maryland June 8th 2010 Dr. Paul Downes Director,"— Presentation transcript:
Key issues in DEIS schools in Ireland: a reference point for the US experience? Towson University, Baltimore, Maryland June 8th 2010 Dr. Paul Downes Director, Educational Disadvantage Centre
Commissioned Reports: -Downes, P and Maunsell, (2007). Count Us In. Tackling early school leaving in South West Inner City Dublin: An Integrated Response. SICCDA and South Inner City Dublin Drugs Task Force - Downes, P., Maunsell, C and Ivers, J. (2006). A Holistic Approach to Early School Leaving and School Retention in Blanchardstown. Blanchardstown Area Partnership. - Downes, P. (2004).Psychological Supports for Ballyfermot: Present and Future (2004) URBAN Ballyfermot. - Downes, P. (2004). Voices of children: St. Raphael’s Primary School Ballyfermot URBAN Ballyfermot. Questionnaires returned: Primary Schools: 852; Secondary Schools: 677 Total: 1,529 Focus Groups 57
NO MENTAL HEALTH STRATEGY FOR CONTEXTS OF EDUCATIONAL DISADVANTAGE: A KEY BARRIER TO PROGRESS
HEALTH ISSUES AND SCHOOL COMPLETION – ‘EDU- CARE’ Hunger in School Bullying Substance Abuse Student-Teacher Conflict Resolution Problematic Sleep Patterns among Pupils
Problematic sleep patterns among students: On the assumption that children at primary school need at least 8.5 hours of sleep, the results from our survey of pupil responses were divided into those who usually go to sleep before midnight and after midnight.
A mental health strategy and fund for contexts of socio-economic disadvantage Not one early school leaving problem: ESL is a behaviour with a range of motivations Beyond piecemeal approach of SCP, beyond 8 week bereavement courses Wider referral processes – reach withdrawn kids: ‘a slap in the face’ Need for prevention and early intervention: non-verbal therapeutic intervention Cf. Familiscope NEPS – Reactive to critical incidents Alternatives to suspension Drug prevention issue EARLY SCHOOL LEAVING IS A MENTAL HEALTH ISSUE !
CHAP 29: Byrne, M. (2007). Health for all CHAP 29: Byrne, M. (2007). Health for all CHAP 30: Ryan, C & Downes, P. (2007). Future steps for NEPS? CHAP 30: Ryan, C & Downes, P. (2007). Future steps for NEPS? CHAP 37: Hegarty, T. (2007). Towards a narrative practice: Conversations in a city centre school CHAP 37: Hegarty, T. (2007). Towards a narrative practice: Conversations in a city centre school CHAP 39: Downes, P & Gilligan, A L.(2007). Some conclusions CHAP 39: Downes, P & Gilligan, A L.(2007). Some conclusions Downes, P & Gilligan, A L (2007) (Eds) Beyond Educational Disadvantage. Dublin: Institute of Public Administration
Kaplan et al’s (1994) North American study of 4,141 young people tested in 7th grade and once again as young adults which found a significant damaging effect of dropping out of high school on mental health functioning as measured by a 10-item self-derogation scale, a 9- item anxiety scale, a 6-item depression scale and a 6-item scale designed to measure coping. This effect was also evident when controls were applied for psychological mental health as measured at 7th grade. The significant damaging effect of dropping out of school was also evident even when controls were applied for gender, father’s occupational status, and ethnicity
THE NEED FOR COMMUNITY BASED EMOTIONAL SUPPORTS Would you talk to an adult working in the school about your problems? Yes Primary240 No Primary300 Maybe/depends Primary 25 Don’t know Primary6 No Answer Primary 46 Yes Secondary131 No Secondary312 Maybe/depends Secondary 23
HEGARTY, T. (2007). Towards a narrative practice: Conversations in a city centre school in Downes, P and Gilligan, A L (Eds) Beyond Educational Disadvantage. Dublin: IPA THE PROBLEM IS THE PROBLEM BEYOND DEFICIT NARRATIVES OVERCOMING COMPETITION FOR NEGATIVE ATTENTION PUBLIC ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF CHANGED NARRATIVES THROUGH A CEREMONY
MURPHY, A. (2007). Peer Mediation: the Power and Importance of Children’s Voices in Downes, P and Gilligan, A L (Eds) Beyond Educational Disadvantage. Dublin: IPA WORKSHOPS WHERE CHILDREN EXPLORE CONFLICTING SITUATIONS THROUGH ROLE PLAY, GROUP WORK DISCUSSION AND REFLECTION GROUND RULES: NO INTERRUPTING, AND NO NAME CALLING MAIN PROBLEMS WRITTEN DOWN BY GROUP FOCUS IS ON PROCESS DIMENSIONS
Bullying in school may also need a wider community focus Dissemination of good practice needs to occur within a school Cross-cultural concentric structures of assumed connection need to be promoted at a system level, to contrast with diametric structures of assumed separation
Galbraith – Culture of Contentment BUILDING ON STRENGTHS DO YOU THINK YOU WANT TO STAY ON AT SCHOOL UNTIL THE LEAVING CERTIFICATE ? Primary Pupils: 5th/6th Class Total: 750 yes80 no 2 probably15 don’t know 15 no answer
COMMON FINDINGS - evidence that some of the pupils and students that are most at risk of early school leaving are falling through the gaps and not accessing existing afterschool services, - the high levels of pupils experiencing problematic sleep patterns potentially affecting their academic performance and linked in some responses to levels of anxiety affecting their sleep, - a notable minority of pupils and students who stated that they have no one to talk with about their problems,
- the limited availability of drug prevention programmes in local schools, - the need for system level work with parents, for example, regarding early intervention strategies for their children’s literacy and speech and language development, - the need for early referrals, - the need for early intervention regarding speech and language development, and therapeutic emotional intervention.
The Special Rapporteur (2006) notes that the right to health is subject to progressive realization and this requires development of indicators and benchmarks:
The right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health is given legal foundation by a range of international legal instruments, including: article 25 (1) of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, article 12 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, article 24 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child article 12 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women right to non-discrimination as reflected in article 5 (e) (iv) of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
Indicators and benchmarks of the international right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health: Is it possible to incorporate some of these indicators within standard relative poverty indicators ?
The Special Rapporteur (2006) emphasizes the importance of focus on ‘disadvantaged’ individuals and communities in relation to the right to health: 25. in general terms a human rights-based approach requires that special attention be given to disadvantaged individuals and communities; it requires the active and informed participation of individuals and communities in policy decisions that affect them; and it requires effective, transparent and accessible monitoring and accountability mechanisms. The combined effect of these - and other features of a human rights-based approach - is to empower disadvantaged individuals and communities.
A DISTINCT FUNDING STRAND FOR MENTAL HEALTH AND SOCIAL INCLUSION IN THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE –SUPPORTED BY FUNDING FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE AND LAW REFORM FOR MENTAL HEALTH INTERVENTIONS FOR STUDENTS AT RISK OF SUSPENSION/EXPULSION - INCLUDING MEDIATORS - 10 MILLION FROM PRIVATE SCHOOLS FUND
Table 3. “At what time do you usually go to sleep on a weekday?” Before Midnight Midnight After midnight Varies/NA School A 42%16%---42% School B 54%16%15%15% School C 78%9%6%7% School D 83%6%---11% School E 40%26%---34% School F 60%8%---32% School G 81%15%---4%
UNITED NATIONS Economic and Social Council 3 March 2006 Commission on Human Rights Economic, Social and Cultural Rights Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, Paul Hunt Cf. Argument that rates of early school leaving are a benchmark/indicator of a right to health norm
BEYOND EDUCATIONAL DISADVANTAGE (Downes, P. & Gilligan, A L. (Eds) (2007). Dublin: Institute Of Public Administration PRIORITY ISSUES 1) Developing school climate at post-primary level 2) Developing teachers’ early literacy instruction skills 3) A mental health strategy and fund for contexts of socio- economic disadvantage 4) Community development and lifelong learning
1) Developing school climate at post-primary level No sunlight ! Not money !……….. No sunlight ! Not money !……….. NDP ……………………………….. NDP ……………………………….. Transition – not merely a problem Transition – not merely a problem of the individual H.Dip………………………………. H.Dip……………………………….
CHAP 28: Darmody, M. (2007). Strengthening the school social climate CHAP 28: Darmody, M. (2007). Strengthening the school social climate CHAP 34: Downes, P. et al (2007). The jolt between primary and post-primary CHAP 35: Maunsell, C. et al (2007). Primary to post- primary: Perceptions of pupils with special educational needs CHAP 36: Farrelly, G. (2007). Bullying and social context: Challenges for schools CHAP 38: Murphy, A. (2007). Peer mediation : The power and importance of children’s voices
2) Developing teachers’ early literacy instruction skills 2) Developing teachers’ early literacy instruction skills Speech and language – system level skills for teachers and parents Speech and language – system level skills for teachers and parents - NDP – ring-fenced funding - NDP – ring-fenced funding - an aspect of drug prevention - an aspect of drug prevention More hours in curriculum ? Integrate with other subjects More hours in curriculum ? Integrate with other subjects Motivation and reading Motivation and reading Arts and literacy: Fear of failure – process drama for language, emotions and social skills Arts and literacy: Fear of failure – process drama for language, emotions and social skills
CHAP 15: Quinn, S. (2007). ‘Only brainy and boring people read’ CHAP 15: Quinn, S. (2007). ‘Only brainy and boring people read’ CHAP 16: Kazmierczak, S. (2007). Preventing potential weaknesses in early literacy instruction CHAP 16: Kazmierczak, S. (2007). Preventing potential weaknesses in early literacy instruction CHAP 17: Mullan, Y. (2007).Raising literacy levels locally CHAP 17: Mullan, Y. (2007).Raising literacy levels locally CHAP 18: Kennedy, E. (2007). Literacy in designated disadvantaged schools CHAP 18: Kennedy, E. (2007). Literacy in designated disadvantaged schools CHAP 25: Hefferon, C. (2007). A model of drama for educational disadvantage CHAP 25: Hefferon, C. (2007). A model of drama for educational disadvantage CHAP 26: Murphy, P. (2007). Drama as radical pedagogy CHAP 26: Murphy, P. (2007). Drama as radical pedagogy CHAP 27: Butler, D & Kelly, J. (2007). The digital era: Empowerment or digital divide ? CHAP 27: Butler, D & Kelly, J. (2007). The digital era: Empowerment or digital divide ?
4) Community development and lifelong learning 4) Community development and lifelong learning Schools as a community resource: Nicholas of Myra Schools as a community resource: Nicholas of Myra Collaboration not contracting out Collaboration not contracting out Parent peer support – Freirean models Parent peer support – Freirean models Community leaders from ethnic minorities including Travellers Community leaders from ethnic minorities including Travellers HSL – evenings, wider than teacher-only HSL – evenings, wider than teacher-only Regional educational structures Regional educational structures
CHAP 11: Bane, L. (2007). A seagull’s view: Adult and community education CHAP 12: Mulkerrins, D. (2007). The transformational potential of the Home School Community Liaison Scheme CHAP 13:Owens, T. (2007). The development of men’s community education in Ireland CHAP 14: Waters, L. (2007). Community education: A view from the margins CHAP 22: Boyle, A. (2007). Traveller parents and early childhood education
QDOSS: An Agenda for Development QDOSS: An Agenda for Development QDOSS is calling for a national strategy on Out of School Services – a strategy that is sensitive to the needs of local contexts.
1) Key Structures Underpinning Out-of-School Services 2) Out-of-School Services: Bridging Health and Education Needs 3) Out-of-School Services: Contribution to Development of School Climate 4) Out-of-School Services: A Key Resource in Culturally Relevant Curriculum Implementation 5) Community Development Principles and Out-of-School Services 6) Evaluation: Structural, Process and Outcome Indicators
References: Downes, P (2006) Quality Development of Out of School Services: An agenda for development. Complied for the QDOSS Network Downes, P. Intravenous Drug Use and HIV in Estonia: Socio-economic integration and development of indicators regarding the right to health for its Russian-speaking population Liverpool Law Review (2007). Special Issue on Historical and Contemporary Legal Issues on HIV/AIDS, Vol.28, 271-317 Downes, P. Prevention of Bullying at a Systemic Level in Schools: Movement from Cog nitive and Spatial Narratives of Diametric Opposition to Concentric Relation. In Shane R. Jimerson, Susan M. Swearer, and Dorothy L. Espelage (Eds.), The Handbook of School Bullying: An International Perspective, Section III., Research-Based Prevention and Intervention (pp.517-533). (2009). New York: Routledge Downes, P & Gilligan, A L (2007) (Eds) Beyond Educational Disadvantage. Dublin: Institute of Public Administration
Galbraith, John (1992) The Culture of Contentment. London: Penguin Kaplan, D.D., Damphousse, J.R. & Kaplan, H.B. (1994). Mental health implications of not graduating from high school. Journal of Experimental Education, 62, 105-123 UNITED NATIONS Economic and Social Council 3 March 2006 COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL RIGHTS. Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, Paul Hunt