Presentation on theme: "Towson University, Baltimore, Maryland June 8th 2010 Dr. Paul Downes"— Presentation transcript:
1 Towson University, Baltimore, Maryland June 8th 2010 Dr. Paul Downes Key issues in DEIS schools in Ireland: a reference point for the US experience?Towson University, Baltimore, MarylandJune 8th 2010Dr. Paul DownesDirector, Educational Disadvantage Centre
2 Commissioned Reports: -Downes, P and Maunsell, (2007). Count Us In Commissioned Reports: -Downes, P and Maunsell, (2007). Count Us In. Tackling early school leaving in South West Inner City Dublin: An Integrated Response. SICCDA and South Inner City Dublin Drugs Task Force - Downes, P., Maunsell, C and Ivers, J. (2006). A Holistic Approach to Early School Leaving and School Retention in Blanchardstown. Blanchardstown Area Partnership. - Downes, P. (2004).Psychological Supports for Ballyfermot: Present and Future (2004) URBAN Ballyfermot. - Downes, P. (2004). Voices of children: St. Raphael’s Primary School Ballyfermot URBAN Ballyfermot.Questionnaires returned: Primary Schools: 852; Secondary Schools: 677 Total: 1, Focus Groups 57
3 NO MENTAL HEALTH STRATEGY FOR CONTEXTS OF EDUCATIONAL DISADVANTAGE: A KEY BARRIER TO PROGRESS
4 Student-Teacher Conflict Resolution HEALTH ISSUES AND SCHOOL COMPLETION – ‘EDU-CARE’Hunger in SchoolBullyingSubstance AbuseStudent-Teacher Conflict ResolutionProblematic Sleep Patterns among Pupils
5 Problematic sleep patterns among students: On the assumption that children at primary school need at least 8.5 hours of sleep, the results from our survey of pupil responses were divided into those who usually go to sleep before midnight and after midnight.
6 A mental health strategy and fund for contexts of socio-economic disadvantage Not one early school leaving problem: ESL is a behaviour with a range of motivationsBeyond piecemeal approach of SCP, beyond 8 week bereavement coursesWider referral processes – reach withdrawn kids: ‘a slap in the face’Need for prevention and early intervention: non-verbal therapeutic intervention Cf. FamiliscopeNEPS – Reactive to critical incidentsAlternatives to suspensionDrug prevention issueEARLY SCHOOL LEAVING IS A MENTAL HEALTH ISSUE !
7 CHAP 29: Byrne, M. (2007). Health for all CHAP 30: Ryan, C & Downes, P. (2007). Future steps for NEPS?CHAP 37: Hegarty, T. (2007). Towards a narrative practice: Conversations in a city centre schoolCHAP 39: Downes, P & Gilligan, A L.(2007). Some conclusionsDownes, P & Gilligan, A L (2007) (Eds) BeyondEducational Disadvantage. Dublin: Institute of PublicAdministration
8 Kaplan et al’s (1994) North American study of 4,141 young people tested in 7th grade and once again as young adults which found a significant damaging effect of dropping out of high school on mental health functioning as measured by a 10-item self-derogation scale, a 9-item anxiety scale, a 6-item depression scale and a 6-item scale designed to measure coping. This effect was also evident when controls were applied for psychological mental health as measured at 7th grade. The significant damaging effect of dropping out of school was also evident even when controls were applied for gender, father’s occupational status, and ethnicity
9 THE NEED FOR COMMUNITY BASED EMOTIONAL SUPPORTS Would you talk to an adult working in the school about your problems?Yes Primary 240 No Primary 300Maybe/depends Primary 25Don’t know Primary 6 No Answer Primary 46Yes Secondary 131No Secondary 312 Maybe/depends Secondary
10 THE PROBLEM IS THE PROBLEM BEYOND DEFICIT NARRATIVES HEGARTY, T. (2007). Towards a narrative practice: Conversations in a city centre school in Downes, P and Gilligan, A L (Eds) Beyond Educational Disadvantage. Dublin: IPATHE PROBLEM IS THE PROBLEMBEYOND DEFICIT NARRATIVESOVERCOMING COMPETITION FOR NEGATIVE ATTENTIONPUBLIC ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF CHANGED NARRATIVES THROUGH A CEREMONY
11 MURPHY, A. (2007). Peer Mediation: the Power and Importance of Children’s Voices in Downes, P and Gilligan, A L (Eds) Beyond Educational Disadvantage. Dublin: IPAWORKSHOPS WHERE CHILDREN EXPLORE CONFLICTING SITUATIONS THROUGH ROLE PLAY, GROUP WORK DISCUSSION AND REFLECTIONGROUND RULES: NO INTERRUPTING, AND NO NAME CALLINGMAIN PROBLEMS WRITTEN DOWN BY GROUPFOCUS IS ON PROCESS DIMENSIONS
12 Bullying in school may also need a wider community focus Dissemination of good practice needs to occur within a schoolCross-cultural concentric structures of assumed connection need to be promoted at a system level, to contrast with diametric structures of assumed separation
13 Galbraith – Culture of Contentment BUILDING ON STRENGTHS DO YOU THINK YOU WANT TO STAY ON AT SCHOOL UNTIL THE LEAVING CERTIFICATE ? Primary Pupils: 5th/6th Class Total: yes 80 no probably 15 don’t know 15 no answer
14 COMMON FINDINGS- evidence that some of the pupils and students that are most at risk of early school leaving are falling through the gaps and not accessing existing afterschool services,- the high levels of pupils experiencing problematic sleep patterns potentially affecting their academic performance and linked in some responses to levels of anxiety affecting their sleep,- a notable minority of pupils and students who stated that they have no one to talk with about their problems,
15 - the limited availability of drug prevention programmes in local schools, - the need for system level work with parents, for example, regarding early intervention strategies for their children’s literacy and speech and language development,- the need for early referrals,- the need for early intervention regarding speech and language development, and therapeutic emotional intervention.
16 health is subject to progressive realization and this The Special Rapporteur (2006) notes that the right tohealth is subject to progressive realization and thisrequires development of indicators and benchmarks:
17 The right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health isgiven legal foundation by a range of international legalinstruments, including:• article 25 (1) of the Universal Declaration ofHuman Rights,• article 12 of the International Covenant onEconomic, Social and Cultural Rights,• article 24 of the Convention on the Rights of theChild• article 12 of the Convention on the Elimination ofAll Forms of Discrimination against Women rightto non-discrimination as reflected in article 5 (e)(iv) of the International Convention on theElimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
18 Indicators and benchmarks of the international right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health:Is it possible to incorporatesome of these indicators within standard relative poverty indicators ?
19 The Special Rapporteur (2006) emphasizes the importance of focus on ‘disadvantaged’ individuals and communities in relation to the right to health: 25. in general terms a human rights-based approach requires thatspecial attention be given to disadvantaged individuals andcommunities; it requires the active and informed participation ofindividuals and communities in policy decisions that affect them;and it requires effective, transparent and accessible monitoring andaccountability mechanisms. The combined effect of these - andother features of a human rights-based approach - is to empowerdisadvantaged individuals and communities.
20 A DISTINCT FUNDING STRAND FOR MENTAL HEALTH AND SOCIAL INCLUSION IN THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE –SUPPORTED BY FUNDING FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE AND LAW REFORM FOR MENTAL HEALTH INTERVENTIONS FOR STUDENTS AT RISK OF SUSPENSION/EXPULSION - INCLUDING MEDIATORS - 10 MILLION FROM PRIVATE SCHOOLS FUND
21 Table 3. “At what time do you usually go to sleep on a weekday?” Before MidnightMidnightAfter midnightVaries/NASchool A42%16%---School B54%15%School C78%9%6%7%School D83%11%School E40%26%34%School F60%8%32%School G81%4%
22 UNITED NATIONS Economic and Social Council 3 March 2006 Commission on Human Rights Economic, Social and Cultural RightsReport of the Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, Paul HuntCf. Argument that rates of early school leaving are a benchmark/indicator of a right to health norm
23 BEYOND EDUCATIONAL DISADVANTAGE (Downes, P. & Gilligan, A L BEYOND EDUCATIONAL DISADVANTAGE (Downes, P. & Gilligan, A L. (Eds) (2007). Dublin: Institute Of Public Administration PRIORITY ISSUES 1) Developing school climate at post-primary level 2) Developing teachers’ early literacy instruction skills 3) A mental health strategy and fund for contexts of socio-economic disadvantage 4) Community development and lifelong learning
24 1) Developing school climate at post-primary level No sunlight ! Not money !………..NDP ………………………………..Transition – not merely a problemof the individualH.Dip……………………………….
25 CHAP 28: Darmody, M. (2007). Strengthening the school social climate CHAP 34: Downes, P. et al (2007). The jolt between primary and post-primaryCHAP 35: Maunsell, C. et al (2007). Primary to post-primary: Perceptions of pupils with special educational needsCHAP 36: Farrelly, G. (2007). Bullying and social context: Challenges for schoolsCHAP 38: Murphy, A. (2007). Peer mediation: The power and importance of children’s voices
26 2) Developing teachers’ early literacy instruction skills Speech and language – system level skills for teachers and parents- NDP – ring-fenced funding- an aspect of drug preventionMore hours in curriculum ? Integrate with other subjectsMotivation and readingArts and literacy: Fear of failure – process drama for language, emotions and social skills
27 CHAP 15: Quinn, S. (2007). ‘Only brainy and boring people read’ CHAP 16: Kazmierczak, S. (2007). Preventing potential weaknesses in early literacy instructionCHAP 17: Mullan, Y. (2007).Raising literacy levels locallyCHAP 18: Kennedy, E. (2007). Literacy in designated disadvantaged schoolsCHAP 25: Hefferon, C. (2007). A model of drama for educational disadvantageCHAP 26: Murphy, P. (2007). Drama as radical pedagogyCHAP 27: Butler, D & Kelly, J. (2007). The digital era: Empowerment or digital divide ?
28 4) Community development and lifelong learning Schools as a community resource: Nicholas of MyraCollaboration not contracting outParent peer support – Freirean modelsCommunity leaders from ethnic minorities including TravellersHSL – evenings, wider than teacher-onlyRegional educational structures
29 CHAP 11: Bane, L. (2007). A seagull’s view: Adult and community education CHAP 12: Mulkerrins, D. (2007). The transformational potential of the Home School Community Liaison SchemeCHAP 13:Owens, T. (2007). The development of men’s community education in IrelandCHAP 14: Waters, L. (2007). Community education: A view from the marginsCHAP 22: Boyle, A. (2007). Traveller parents and early childhood education
30 QDOSS: An Agenda for Development QDOSS is calling for a nationalstrategy on Out of SchoolServices – a strategy that issensitive to the needs of local contexts.
31 1) Key Structures Underpinning Out-of-School Services 2) 1) Key Structures Underpinning Out-of-School Services 2) Out-of-School Services: Bridging Health and Education Needs 3) Out-of-School Services: Contribution to Development of School Climate 4) Out-of-School Services: A Key Resource in Culturally Relevant Curriculum Implementation 5) Community Development Principles and Out-of-School Services 6) Evaluation: Structural, Process and Outcome Indicators
32 Downes, P (2006) Quality Development of Out of School Services: An agenda for development. Complied for the QDOSS NetworkDownes, P. Intravenous Drug Use and HIV in Estonia: Socio-economic integration and development of indicators regarding the right to health for its Russian-speaking populationLiverpool Law Review (2007). Special Issue on Historical and Contemporary Legal Issues on HIV/AIDS, Vol.28,Downes, P. Prevention of Bullying at a Systemic Level in Schools: Movement from Cog nitive and Spatial Narratives of Diametric Opposition to Concentric Relation. In Shane R. Jimerson, Susan M. Swearer, and Dorothy L. Espelage (Eds.), The Handbook of School Bullying: An International Perspective , Section III., Research-Based Prevention and Intervention (pp ). (2009). New York: RoutledgeDownes, P & Gilligan, A L (2007) (Eds) Beyond Educational Disadvantage. Dublin: Institute of Public AdministrationReferences:
33 Galbraith, John (1992) The Culture of Contentment. London: Penguin Kaplan, D.D., Damphousse, J.R. & Kaplan, H.B. (1994). Mental health implications of not graduating from high school. Journal of Experimental Education, 62,UNITED NATIONS Economic and Social Council 3 March 2006 COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTSECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL RIGHTS. Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right ofeveryone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, Paul Hunt