Presentation on theme: "Visual Thinking and Visual Thinking Tools: Space, Time and Simple Cognitive Models to Support Design Colin Ware Data Visualization Research Lab, CCOM,"— Presentation transcript:
Visual Thinking and Visual Thinking Tools: Space, Time and Simple Cognitive Models to Support Design Colin Ware Data Visualization Research Lab, CCOM, University of New Hampshire
Architecture for visual thinking
Change Blindness Simons and Levin
Central Problem: How do we perceive the world in all its rich detail?
The Nature of Visual Space
Capacity of visual working memory (Vogal, Woodman, Luck, 2001) Task – change detection Can see 3.3 objects Each object can be complex 1 second
Sequential comparison task
We can remember about 3-8 locations GistSemantic content
Solution “The world is its own memory” O’Regan Task-related active vision “What you see is what you need” Treish et al. (2003) Seeing is a process that helps us solve problems
Task-related eye movements Hayhoe and Ballard, 2005
Example 1: How to get focus and context? Zooming (Bedersen) Linked windows (Fowler & Ware) Fisheye (Furnas, Carpendale)
Zooming Vs Multiple Windows (Matt Plumlee) Problem: When do we need extra windows? Comparing parts of a visual scene. 2 solutions: Zooming, multiple windows
Task: searching for target patterns that match Zooming vs Windows + eye movements 1,3,5,7 items per cluster Conditons:
Cognitive Model (grossly simplified) Time = setup cost + number of “visits” x time per visit Number of visits is a function of number of objects to be compared and visual working memory capacity. Visits = n/M
Prediction Results As targets (and visual working memory load) increases, multiple Windows become more attractive.
Design heuristic When we need to compare more two or three simple pattern components add windows.
Example 2 Tools for finding new underwater behaviors from humpback whale tag data (Why turning time into space is a good idea)
Big Eyes Antenna The gear DTAG Mark Johnson Dave Wiley
Task: find new behaviors = stereotyped patterns Cognitive Algorithm repeat Review behavior sequence looking for patterns. Remember patterns. Look for more instances. until no new patterns
The old way
Solution 1. GeoZui 4D
Cognitive process for finding new behaviors stereotyped patterns Cognitive Algorithm repeat Review behavior sequence looking for patterns by playback. Remember patterns using space-time notes. Look for more instances. May involve reviewing all other whale tracks. Until no new patterns Cost k*playback time.
Solution 2: trackplot
Process for finding new behaviors stereotyped patterns Cognitive algorithm Get to a good viewpoint repeat Review behavior sequence looking for patterns eye movements. Remember patterns using visual working memory. Look for more instances. May involve reviewing all other whale tracks. Can be posted on the wall until no new patterns Cost Nav + Eye Movement time *pattern matching.
Gain in efficiency – from playback tool to pattern finding tool Many hours (with playback) A few minutes (with patterns) Approximately a factor of 100
Design heuristic Whenever possible: Turn time into a spatial pattern – one that converts critical events into shapes or patterns Try to make natural mappings – proper use of texture color, etc.
Example 3: Network diagram
Degree of relevance highlighting User clicks on something Computer shows related items User conducts a visual search for task relevant information
ME Graph Constellation
Order of magnitude gain in size Layout problem simplified Applicable to many problems Depends on information scent
Review OBJECT FILES “Nexus”
Where are we going? Simple cognitive process models involving Perceptual and cognitive operations Interaction methods For Design