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Visual Programming by Muhammad Bilal Zafar (AP).

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1 Visual Programming by Muhammad Bilal Zafar (AP)


3 Visual Programming  Programming in which more than one dimensions is used to convey semantics.  Diagrams, icons or demonstration of actions performed by graphical objects.  It is a methodology in which development allows programmers to grab and use of ingredients like menus, buttons, controls and other graphic elements from a tool box. 3

4 Course Description  Introduces key skills of problem solving and visual computer programming, including the elementary programming concepts.  Covers the fundamentals & details of following  Visual language  Iconic and symbolic representations  Debugging techniques  Semantics and pragmatics of desktop applications  Web programming 4

5 Course Description..  Flow of course would be like this  Fundamentals of OOP.  Console based applications using Visual C++.  CLR based programming using Visual C++.  Desktop based applications using MFC and CLR. and in the last part we will see  Visual ASP.NET for web based applications. 5

6  On completion of this course students will have the ability to comprehend  Concepts of OOP .NET Framework  Visual C++  & C# Course Objectives 6

7  Comprehend a programming problem and design a solution.  Code a solution to a problem for both desktop and web based applications using visual tools. Course Objectives.. 7

8 Recommended Books  IVOR HORTON’S BEGINNING VISUAL C , by Ivor Horton  ASP.NET 4 24-HOUR TRAINER by Toe.B Right 8

9 Reference Books / Readings  OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING IN C++, 4 th Edition by Robert Lefore  BEGINNING ASP.NET 4: IN C# AND VB by Imar Spaanjaars  For Online Library help  9

10 Course Prerequisites  The student is expected to somehow familiar with the programming languages and operating systems concepts. 10

11 Assessment & Grading Exam NoExam Type Due after Lecture No. Total Marks 1Quiz 1 55% 2Quiz 2 225% 3Assignment % 4Assignment % 5Midterm Exam 1820% 6Final Exam 3250% Marks scheme:  Quizzes + assignments = 30%  Mid Term Exam = 20%  Final = 50% 11


13 Programming Languages  Programming language is an artificial language designed to communicate instructions to a machine, particularly a computer.  It can be used to create instruction sets (programs) that can control the behavior of a machine. 13

14 Programming Languages..  Mainly PL has comprised of two components  Syntax  Semantic 14

15 Syntax  Set of rules that defines the combinations of symbols that are considered to be correctly structured in that language.  Computer language syntax is generally distinguished into three levels:  Words  Phrases  Context 15

16 Semantics  Semantics is the field concerned with the rigorous mathematical study of the meaning of programming languages.  It does so by evaluating the meaning of syntactically legal strings defined by a specific programming language.  Semantics describes the processes a computer follows when executing a program in programming language. 16

17 Programming Languages  Generally we can divide the programming languages into two main categories.  High Level Languages  Low Level Languages 17

18 Types of Languages..  High Level Languages  A language that supports system development at a high level of Abstraction thereby freeing the developer from keeping lots of details that are irrelevant to the problem at hand.  Close to human language  Easy to write  Pascal, Fotran, C++, Java, Visual basic, PHP, PERL … etc…  i.e printf (“Hello World”); 18

19 Types of Languages..  Low Level Languages  Low-level languages are designed to operate and handle the entire hardware and instructions set architecture of a computer directly.  A programming language that provides little or no abstraction from a computer's instruction set architecture.  Generally this refers to either Assembly language or Machine language. 19

20 Types of Languages...  Assembly Language  An assembly language is a low-level programming language, in which there is a very strong correspondence between the language and the architecture’s machine code instructions.  Each assembly language is specific to a particular computer architecture  Use Symbolic operation code MOVE 3000,4000 // Copy contents of location 3000 to location

21 Types of Languages...  Machine Language  Fundamental language of the computer processor  All programs are converted into machine language before they executed  Consists of combination of 1’s and 0’s that represent high and low electrical voltage 21

22 Programming Types  Programming can be done in different ways but in high level languages there are two major approaches.  Structured Programming  Object Oriented Programming 22

23 Structured Programming  Structured programming is a subset of procedural programming that enforces a logical structure on the program being written to make it more efficient and easier to understand and modify.  It is a technique that follows a top down design approach with block oriented structures.  Also known as Modular Programming. 23

24 Object Oriented Programming  Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming language model organized around  Objects rather than actions &  Data rather than logic language syntax  Objects are usually instances of classes & are used to interact with one another to design applications and computer programs. 24

25 Object Oriented Programming..  OOP organizes program around a real-world entity called an object (Instance).  Classes  A class is a construct that is used to define a distinct type  Attributes  Methods 25

26 OOP..  Main characteristics of OOP  Encapsulation  A language mechanism for restricting access to some of the object's components  A language construct that facilitates the bundling of data with the methods (or other functions) operating on that data. 26

27 OOP..  Inheritance  Inheritance is a way to establish a relationship between objects of the classes.  Polymorphism  It is the ability to create a variable, a function, or an object that has more than one form. 27

28 C++  Developed by Bjarne Stroustrup starting in 1979 at Bell Labs.  C++ was originally named C with Classes.  The language was renamed C++ in  It is an intermediate-level language, as it comprises both high-level and low-level features.  C++ is an Object Oriented Programming Language.  However, It is possible to write object oriented or procedural code in the same program in C++. 28

29 C++..  C++ application domain includes following areas  Systems Software  Applications Software  Device Drivers  Embedded Software  High-performance server and client applications  Video Games 29

30 C++ Syntax  C++ Programs built from pieces called classes and functions  C++ standard library provides rich collections of existing classes and functions for all programmers to use.  Basic Syntax  Lets see an example program 30

31 C++ Program #include using namespace std; // Comments goes here…. int main() { cout << "Hello World"; // prints Hello World return 0; } 31

32 Program Description #include  The C++ language defines several headers, which contain information that is either necessary or useful to your program. using namespace std;  It tells the compiler to use the std namespace.  Namespaces allow to group entities like classes, objects and functions under a name. 32

33 Program Description.. // Comments goes here….  It is a single-line comment available in C++. Single-line comments begin with // and stop at the end of the line int main()  This is the line where program execution begins.  Main function with a return type integer. 33

34 Program Description... cout << "Hello World"; // prints Hello World  It causes the message “Hello World" to be displayed on the screen.  And its second part after // is a comment. return 0;  This line terminates main( )function and causes it to return the value 0 to the calling process. 34

35 C++ Keywords  Some keywords are:  if  else  for  switch  int  float  char  main  class  auto  bool  break  case  default  return CASE SENSITIVE LANGUAGE 35

36 Execution Phases 36

37 Where to Write the Code ????

38 Code Editors  Code can be written in any word processor that can create text files.  Can also be written on command line.  Some code editors are  Notepad  Edit pad lite  Text wrangler (For Mac machines only)  Jedit  Vim  Dream Weaver  Net Beans  IDE ???? 38

39 Thank You 39

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