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CRFS Study Force, Pressure, Flow & Volume

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Force & Pressure Mechanical Strain Gauge Piezo-resistive Capacitive Inductive Optical

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Mechanical Gauges Manometers Force summing devices

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Strain Gauge Wire or foil which thins when stretched Resistance increases when stretched Usually used in pairs or groups of 4

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Wheatstone Bridge Circuit Diaphragm flex stretches some & compresses others Increases sensitivity & linearity Full or half bridge

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Piezo-resistive Semiconductor chip Resistance changes when flexed May include amplifiers

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Capacitive Capacitance between diaphagm & 1 or 2 fixed plates Requires AC Limited by characteristics of gap contents

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Inductive Inductance changes produced by metal diaphragm on 2 fixed coils Requires AC

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Optical Light intensity varies with pressure

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Pressure Absolute Gauge Differential

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Flow Fleisch pneumotach Screen pneumotach Pitot tube Venturi / Orifice Rotating vane Mass Flow Ultrasonic Differentiation of volume

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Reynold’s Number v s - mean fluid velocity, L - characteristic length (equal to diameter 2r if a cross- section is circular), μ - (absolute) dynamic fluid viscosity, ν - kinematic fluid viscosity: ν = μ / ρ, ρ - fluid density.

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Fleisch pneumotach Resistive Linear

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Screen pneumotach Resistive Linear

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Pitot tube Bernoulli equation

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Venturi / Orifice Bernoulli equation

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Rotating vane Rotating air stream Low inertia follower Digital counter based

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Mass Flow Thermal

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Ultrasonic Doppler effect Accurate timing

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Differentiation of volume Direct volume measurement Rate of change

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Volume Watersealed Rolling seal Bellows Gasometer

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OBJECTIVE Without reference, identify at least four out of six principles pertaining to the application of transducers related to patient care.

OBJECTIVE Without reference, identify at least four out of six principles pertaining to the application of transducers related to patient care.

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