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Lecture 51 The Telephone System. Lecture 52 The Telephone System The modern telephone system draws from these Electrical Engineering subdisciplines: Signal.

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Presentation on theme: "Lecture 51 The Telephone System. Lecture 52 The Telephone System The modern telephone system draws from these Electrical Engineering subdisciplines: Signal."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lecture 51 The Telephone System

2 Lecture 52 The Telephone System The modern telephone system draws from these Electrical Engineering subdisciplines: Signal processing: Speech compression, noise reduction, A/D and D/A conversion.. Communications and networking: transmission technologies, network architectures and protocols. Digital and computer: configurable switching hardware. Electromagnetics: microwave transmission hardware. Solid state: miniaturization, integration of complex systems onto a single chip. Power Electronics: extremely reliable power supplies.

3 Lecture 53 Old Versus New The early telephone system provided (what today is know as) POTS-”plain old telephone service”. The only service provided by the early telephone system was voice transmission. The modern telephone system provides voice transmission as well as a host of other services: –data transmission and video transmission –sophisticated billing and feature capabilities such as call waiting and call forwarding.

4 Lecture 54 An Early Phone System Telephone Speaker Mic. Telephone Speaker Mic. Central Office Switchboard Speaker Mic. Power Supply

5 Lecture 55 The Early Phone System The major components of a telephone were a carbon microphone and a speaker made from an electromagnet and a paramagnetic diaphragm. Telephones were connected to the central office by twisted-pair wires. At the central office, calls were completed by a human operator at a switchboard-a physical connection between two telephones was made.

6 Lecture 56 An Early Phone Circuit Telephone Handset Carbon Microphone Earphone Central Office Battery Telephone Handset Carbon Microphone Earphone

7 Lecture 57 The Phone Circuit Electrical current flows in this circuit in a loop from the battery at the central office, through the components of the two telephones (the speaker and the microphone), and back into the battery. This circuit is a series connection of the components in the two telephones and the battery. All of the current that flows through the battery also flows through the components in the two telephones.

8 Lecture 58 Microphone The microphone consists of loosely packed carbon granules in a box with a diaphragm on one side The electrical resistance of the carbon in the box is related to the displacement of the diaphragm-when the carbon granules are compressed, the resistance is reduced. Thus, the microphone converts changes in pressure to changes in resistance. The microphone is modeled electrically as a variable resistor.

9 Lecture 59 Speaker The speaker was made from an electromagnet and a paramagnetic diaphragm. Changes in the current flowing through the electromagnet result in changes of the magnetic field strength, which in turn results in a change of the position of the diaphragm. Thus, the speaker converts changes in current to movement of a diaphragm which produces sound energy. The speaker is modeled electrically as an inductor.

10 Lecture 510 Central Office Switchboard: the switchboard connects two telephones electrically. Battery: the battery provides the power necessary to create an electrical current flowing in the loop.

11 Lecture 511 The Modern Telephone System Fundamentally, the modern telephone systems appears much the same as the early system to handset users. There are very significant differences: –Digital data, video, and other signals are transmitted along with speech. –Calls are routed automatically under software control. –Most transmission is digital.

12 Lecture 512 A Modern Telephone Connection PCM Encoder PCM Decoder Switching Network PCM Decoder PCM Encoder Analog Digital

13 Lecture 513 Analog Vs. Digital An analog signal is a continuous-time signal: A digital signal is a sequence of 1’s and 0’s: time

14 Lecture 514 Why Digital? Transmission over long distances degrades both analog and digital signals-digital signals can be “cleaned up”, allowing repeaters to be used without any signal distortion. Can mix many types of information (phone, video, data, etc.) Digital hardware is less expensive. Digital data can be encrypted.

15 Lecture 515 PCM-Pulse Code Modulation A PCM encoder converts an analog signal into a digital signal with a particular format. A PCM decoder converts a digital signal into an analog signal. PCM is one form of quantization. PCM is one form of analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion.

16 Lecture 516 PCM Encoder A continuous signal is converted into a bit stream: Involves three operations: Sampling, Quantization, and Encoding

17 Lecture 517 Sampling Value of the signal is obtained at equally spaced points in time: time

18 Lecture 518 Quantizer Each sample is quantized to one of a finite number of values. Quantizer input/output relationship: input voltage output voltage

19 Lecture 519 Encoding A pattern of bits is assigned to each possible output level of the quantizer. n bits can represent 2 n quantizer output levels.

20 Lecture 520 PCM Decoder PCM decoder is one type of digital-to-analog (D/A) converter

21 Lecture 521 Telephone Network A house or business is called a subscriber. Typically, phone lines to houses or small businesses are analog twisted-pair wire connections. Subscribers’ analog lines are connected to a Regional Terminal (RT) or to a Central Office (CO). At the RT or CO, the analog signal is converted to a digital signal.

22 Lecture 522 Network Architecture Subscriber RT Subscriber RT CO Long-distance Network


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