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The Industrial Revolution, 1700–1900 QUIT Chapter Overview Time Line Visual Summary SECTION The Beginnings of Industrialization 1 SECTION Patterns of Change:

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Presentation on theme: "The Industrial Revolution, 1700–1900 QUIT Chapter Overview Time Line Visual Summary SECTION The Beginnings of Industrialization 1 SECTION Patterns of Change:"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Industrial Revolution, 1700–1900 QUIT Chapter Overview Time Line Visual Summary SECTION The Beginnings of Industrialization 1 SECTION Patterns of Change: Industrialization 2 SECTION Industrialization Spreads 3 SECTION An Age of Reforms 4 25 CHAPTER MAP GRAPH

2 HOME Chapter Overview During the 1800s, Britain, the United States, and some European countries undergo a rapid process of industrialization. The Industrial Revolution creates great wealth but also great social and economic inequality, prompting a backlash of reform. The Industrial Revolution, 1700– CHAPTER

3 1701 Jethro Tull invents seed drill James Watt builds steam engine Eli Whitney invents cotton gin Robert Fulton launches first steamboat. The Industrial Revolution, 1700– CHAPTER Time Line HOME 1848 Marx and Engels publish Communist Manifesto British unions win right to strike First railroad line built in England.

4 In Britain, changes in agriculture lay the foundations for the Industrial Revolution. Other factors— including ample resources, an expanding economy, and political stability—provide the conditions for the rapid growth of industry. Overview Assessment Key Idea The Beginnings of Industrialization 1 HOME

5 MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW The Industrial Revolution started in England and soon spread elsewhere. The changes that began in Britain paved the way for modern industrial societies. Overview The Beginnings of Industrialization 1 Assessment Industrial Revolution enclosure crop rotation industrialization factors of production factory entrepreneur TERMS & NAMES HOME

6 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List four natural resources needed for industrialization and how each resource is used. The Beginnings of Industrialization 1 Section 1 Assessment continued... HOME Natural ResourceUse Coal Fuel new machines Iron ore Construct new machines, tools, buildings RiversInland transportation Good harbors Docking stations for merchant ships

7 2. What effect did entrepreneurs have upon the Industrial Revolution? THINK ABOUT Section The Beginnings of Industrialization 1 1 Assessment new technological developments business opportunities increase in prosperity ANSWER Entrepreneurs helped to promote the Industrial Revolution, because they were willing to risk their capital by investing it in new inventions and enterprises. Possible Response: HOME End of Section 1

8 Industrialization transforms British society: cities grow, work patterns change, and a middle class emerges. The city of Manchester becomes a notable example of the benefits and drawbacks of the new industrial age. Overview Assessment Key Idea Industrialization 2 HOME CASE STUDY: Manchester PATTERNS OF CHANGE MAP

9 Industrialization 2 HOME CASE STUDY: Manchester PATTERNS OF CHANGE The factory system changed the way people lived and worked, introducing a variety of problems. The difficult process of industrialization is being repeated in many less- developed countries today. Overview Assessment urbanization middle class MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW TERMS & NAMES MAP

10 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List the social classes in industrial England, and list the types of laborers and professionals included in each group. continued... Industrialization 2 HOME CASE STUDY: Manchester PATTERNS OF CHANGE Workers in factories, mines Factory overseers, skilled workers Factory owners, merchants, government employees, doctors, lawyers, managers 4. Working Class 3. Lower Middle Class 2. Upper Middle Class 1. Upper Class Landowners, aristocrats MAP Section 2 Assessment

11 ANSWER Industrialization promoted the growth of cities because the factory system led to manufacturing goods in a central location, and this, in turn, created jobs and economic opportunity. Possible Response: 2. How did industrialization contribute to city growth? THINK ABOUT growth of industry creation of jobs the economic advantages of centralization continued... Industrialization 2 HOME CASE STUDY: Manchester PATTERNS OF CHANGE MAP Section 2 Assessment

12 ANSWER The factory owner might have believed that without jobs many of his workers would starve; that hard work is better than no work; all factories had the same conditions, so his were no worse; that if he were making money, that was all that mattered. Possible Responses: 3. How might a factory owner have justified the harsh conditions in his factory? THINK ABOUT class distinctions the spread of factories End of Section 2 Industrialization 2 HOME CASE STUDY: Manchester PATTERNS OF CHANGE financial gains MAP Section 2 Assessment

13 Industrial technologies travel from Britain to America, causing an industrial boom in the United States. Industrialization also spreads to continental Europe and contributes to the rise of imperialism. Overview Assessment Key Idea Industrialization Spreads 3 HOME

14 The industrialization that began in Great Britain spread to other parts of the world. The Industrial Revolution set the stage for the growth of modern cities. Overview Assessment corporation Industrialization Spreads 3 MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW TERMS & NAMES HOME

15 Industrialization Spreads 3 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Give three examples of the effects of industrialization on the world. Section 3 Assessment continued... HOME Worldwide Effects Strengthened economic ties between countries Widened gap between industrialized and non- industrialized countries Promoted colonization

16 Industrialization Spreads 3 Section 3 Assessment ANSWER Yes: She seems to be speaking as a young woman from New England who chose to work in the mill and was pleased with the experience. No: Since she recorded her thoughts and experiences in a memoir or journal, she may have been more independent than most young women. Possible Responses: 2. Reread the quote by Lucy Larcom. Do you think her feelings about working in the mill are typical? Why or why not? THINK ABOUT her experiences in a mill her possible bias HOME End of Section 3

17 Industrialization provokes positive and negative reactions in society. Some philosophers extol the virtues of free market capitalism, while others promote socialism, unionization, and a variety of reform movements designed to blunt the harsh effects of industrialism. Overview Assessment Key Idea An Age of Reforms 4 HOME GRAPH

18 The Industrial Revolution led to economic, social, and political reforms. Many modern social welfare programs developed during this period. Overview Assessment laissez faire Adam Smith capitalism utilitarianism socialism Karl Marx communism union collective bargaining strike An Age of Reforms 4 MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW TERMS & NAMES HOME GRAPH

19 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Compare and contrast capitalism and Marxism. An Age of Reforms 4 continued... SectionAssessment HOME GRAPH Capitalism Only Marxism Only Both Supported individual freedom; opposed government intervention; guided by profit motive; individual ownership of private property Economic arrangements central to society Factors of production owned by people; governmental control of factories, mines; predicted proletariat revolution 4

20 SectionAssessment ANSWER 2. What were the main problems faced by the unions during the 1800s? How did the unions overcome these problems? THINK ABOUT government restrictions labor reforms An Age of Reforms 4 Workers were denied the right to form unions; unions and strikes outlawed; unskilled workers did not have much bargaining power. Unions fought back by getting their members to refuse to work; unions got Parliament to repeal the Combination Acts. Possible Responses: HOME GRAPH continued... skilled workers vs. unskilled workers 4

21 Section An Age of Reforms 4 4 Assessment ANSWER Economic forces dominate all areas of society. Certain events are better explained by idealism and desire for freedom. Possible Responses: HOME End of Section 4 GRAPH 3. According to Marx and Engels, economic forces alone dominate society. How important do you think such forces are? THINK ABOUT other forces, like ethnic loyalties, desire for democracy causes of the Industrial Revolution the class structure


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