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“Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!” Weight & Balance Keeping the Shiny Side Up Written for the Notre Dame Pilot Initiative.

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Presentation on theme: "“Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!” Weight & Balance Keeping the Shiny Side Up Written for the Notre Dame Pilot Initiative."— Presentation transcript:

1 “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!” Weight & Balance Keeping the Shiny Side Up Written for the Notre Dame Pilot Initiative By the Pilots of the University of Notre Dame Written for the Notre Dame Pilot Initiative By the Pilots of the University of Notre Dame

2 QuoteQuote Balance is beautiful Miyoko Ohno Balance is beautiful Miyoko Ohno

3 RoadmapRoadmap  Terms  Forces  Mathematical Treatment  Graphical Treatment  Terms  Forces  Mathematical Treatment  Graphical Treatment

4 LimitationsLimitations  An airplane must only be flown within certificated limits of weight and balance to ensure that it remains controllable, performs adequately and is not overstressed. Correct weight and balance means:  Maximum allowable weight is not exceeded; and  Center of gravity (CG) is within a specified range  An airplane must only be flown within certificated limits of weight and balance to ensure that it remains controllable, performs adequately and is not overstressed. Correct weight and balance means:  Maximum allowable weight is not exceeded; and  Center of gravity (CG) is within a specified range

5 TermsTerms  Center of Gravity  Point at which the airplane’s entire weight is assumed to be concentrated  Center of Lift (Pressure)  Point at which the airplane’s entire lift assumed to be concentrated  Basic Empty Weight  Generally, the weight of the airframe, unusable fuel, unusable/full oil, and full hydraulic fluid  Center of Gravity  Point at which the airplane’s entire weight is assumed to be concentrated  Center of Lift (Pressure)  Point at which the airplane’s entire lift assumed to be concentrated  Basic Empty Weight  Generally, the weight of the airframe, unusable fuel, unusable/full oil, and full hydraulic fluid

6 ForcesForces  The goal in flying any airplane is to always remain in positive control  Knowing how the forces that act on our airplane balance helps us predict how it will fly  AX = BY  The goal in flying any airplane is to always remain in positive control  Knowing how the forces that act on our airplane balance helps us predict how it will fly  AX = BY AB Fulcrum Moment arm of AMoment arm of B XY

7 “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!” Mathematical Treatment

8 Practical Exercise  Joe (150) and Jeff (200) want to fly to Cocoa Beach. They decide to take Brady (231) with them for some extra practice with them.  The golden helmets (15) are in the back seat and footballs (35) are in the baggage compartment.  Are we good to go?  Joe (150) and Jeff (200) want to fly to Cocoa Beach. They decide to take Brady (231) with them for some extra practice with them.  The golden helmets (15) are in the back seat and footballs (35) are in the baggage compartment.  Are we good to go?

9 WeightWeight  We want to add up all of the weights in our airplane  Start with BEW  Then we add usable fuel (and oil), passengers, and cargo  FAA standard passenger is 170 lbs  Always ascertain the proper weight of pax and cargo  AVGAS is 6 pounds per gallon  Oil is 7.5 pounds per gallon  Water is 8.35 pounds per gallon  We want to add up all of the weights in our airplane  Start with BEW  Then we add usable fuel (and oil), passengers, and cargo  FAA standard passenger is 170 lbs  Always ascertain the proper weight of pax and cargo  AVGAS is 6 pounds per gallon  Oil is 7.5 pounds per gallon  Water is 8.35 pounds per gallon

10 WeightWeight Empty Weight1683 Useable Fuel350 Front Seats340 Rear Seats15 Baggage Area35 Takeoff Weight2423

11 BalanceBalance  The aircraft can only be controlled if it is positively stable.  Maintaining the proper center of gravity assures us that the airplane will be controllable upon liftoff  The Center of Gravity must be forward of the Center of Lift (Pressure) in order to achieve positive dynamic stability  The aircraft can only be controlled if it is positively stable.  Maintaining the proper center of gravity assures us that the airplane will be controllable upon liftoff  The Center of Gravity must be forward of the Center of Lift (Pressure) in order to achieve positive dynamic stability

12 Loading Chart

13 BalanceBalance “WAM” Weight x Arm = Moment Empty Weight1,68339.766,815 Useable Fuel35048.016,800 Front Seats34037.012,580 Rear Seats1573.01,095 Baggage Area35953,325 Takeoff Weight (lbs)2,423 Total Moment (lb-in)100,615 C.G (in)41.53 Total Moment / Total Weight = C.G

14 “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!” Graphical Treatment

15 63+12.5+12+2+3+1 = 93.5 lb-in

16

17 Center of Gravity Envelope

18 Stability & Control  Center of Gravity concerns:  Unable to compensate with elevator in pitch axis  Weight and Balance becomes critical – stalls & landing  Center of Gravity concerns:  Unable to compensate with elevator in pitch axis  Weight and Balance becomes critical – stalls & landing

19 Tricks of the Trade  Flying with a rear CG is more efficient but decreases stability  Flying with a forward CG decreases performance and makes flaring for landing more difficult, yet makes for a quick stall recovery  Flying over gross weight may overstress the airplane and cause it to self-destruct  Flying with a rear CG is more efficient but decreases stability  Flying with a forward CG decreases performance and makes flaring for landing more difficult, yet makes for a quick stall recovery  Flying over gross weight may overstress the airplane and cause it to self-destruct

20 ConclusionsConclusions  It is very easy to make an airplane unflyable by misloading it.  When you fly outside of tolerance, you become a test pilot.  Understanding weight and balance will allow you to maximize performance and understand poor performance  It is very easy to make an airplane unflyable by misloading it.  When you fly outside of tolerance, you become a test pilot.  Understanding weight and balance will allow you to maximize performance and understand poor performance

21 Say Intentions  One Passenger, No baggage, Full Fuel, Calm Winds, No Ceiling, PIC-25 hours  Go for it  Three Passengers, Full Fuel, Golf Clubs for 4 (10 each), Scattered T-storms, PIC-500 hours  Calculations bring you right to max GW and a rear CG  Go for it with that experience  Second scenario again (Passengers are his grandmother, girlfriend, and the bosses 3 year old daughter), PIC-50 hours, 5 hours in an Archer  No go, passengers are not easy to deal with, pilot has little experience in type, and the airplane will be difficult to control in turbulence  One Passenger, No baggage, Full Fuel, Calm Winds, No Ceiling, PIC-25 hours  Go for it  Three Passengers, Full Fuel, Golf Clubs for 4 (10 each), Scattered T-storms, PIC-500 hours  Calculations bring you right to max GW and a rear CG  Go for it with that experience  Second scenario again (Passengers are his grandmother, girlfriend, and the bosses 3 year old daughter), PIC-50 hours, 5 hours in an Archer  No go, passengers are not easy to deal with, pilot has little experience in type, and the airplane will be difficult to control in turbulence

22 Salmon 30 Salmon


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