Download presentation

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Published byKeenan Morrisson Modified about 1 year ago

1
Loading ATC Chapter 2

2
Aim To calculate weight & balance data for various loading systems/aircrafts

3
Objectives 1.Define weight terminology 2.Standard Passenger weights 3.Conversions 4.Review loading systems Alpha, Bravo, CharlieAlphaBravoCharlie 5.Shifting weights within Alpha, Bravo, CharlieAlphaBravoCharlie 6.The ‘Echo Aircraft’ 7.Define & calculate floor loading for Echo 8.Fuel planning for Echo aircraft 9.Define centre of gravity & M.A.C for Echo 10.Explain & demonstrate use of the Echo loading systemsEcho loading

4
1. Weight terminology Basic Empty Weight Weight of aircraft including fixed equipment, unusable fuel, full oil Empty Weight Same as BEW however ONLY include undrainable oil Zero Fuel Weight Gross weight of aircraft plus payload not inclusive of fuel Max Zero Fuel Weight Large aircraft have a max structural limit of how much aircraft can weigh/carry before the load of fuel balances the forces exerted Max Ramp Weight Max gross weight permitted prior to taxiing. Generally exceeds MTOW and is made up of fuel to be burnt during taxi

5
1. Weight terminology Max Take-Off Weight Max permissible weight according to the certificate of airworthiness or approved flight manual. It is structural limitation of aircraft Performance-Limited TOW If due to terrain, altitude, obstacles, runway length, etc conditions, the MTOW may be required to be reduced to account for this. Max Landing Weight Max permissible weight the aircraft may be at upon landing. Specific Fuel Weight The weight of fuel in comparison to water. 1kg of water = 1lt of water, 1lt AVGAS 100/130 = 0.71kg

6
1. Weight terminology Centre of Gravity (CoG) – Point where all the weight is said to act. Also the point about which the aircraft pivots Datum – The point which ALL measurements of arms are taken from. For the 172SP this is the lower portion of the front face of the firewall Arm/Moment arm – Horizontal distance from reference datum to each item in the aircraft CoG Datum Arm Balance

7
1. Weight terminology Balance Moment – Turning force about any given point. Depends on: size of the force and the moment arm. Moment (kg-mm) = Force(kg) x Distance(mm) Index Unit – When calculating W&B the moments are often quite large. To make them smaller we can divide them by a constant eg.10,000. Where 1 index unit = 10,000 units.

8
1. Weight terminology Aft CoG The more aft the CoG, the more unstable the aircraft. Forward pressure on the elevator control and full nose-down trim may be necessary to keep the aircraft from pitching up and stalling. The need for increased forward pressure on the elevator control, and a tendency for the aircraft to take off in a dangerously nose-high attitude, are symptoms of an aft CoG. Aft CoG movement has caused a number of accidents, including this one where unsecured parachutists moved to the back of the aircraft shortly before take-off

9
1. Weight terminology Forward CoG The more forward the CoG, the more stable the aircraft. Back pressure on the elevator control and full nose-up trim may be necessary. It will be difficult to rotate and flare (assuming that there is enough elevator control available to have become airborne in the first place)

10
1. Weight terminology Pilot Responsibilities The pilot in command of an aircraft must ensure the aircraft does not operate above any weight limits and remains in balance for the duration of the flight When calculating aircraft weight and balance the PIC must take into account: Total weight Position of the weight Movement of the weight during flight Fuel burn

11
2. Standard pax weights CAAP 235 To simplify balance & loading in larger commercial/RPT aircraft passenger weights are standardized. Use only for aircraft with more than 7 passenger seats (extract CAAP 235)

12
Multiply in the direction of conversion 3. Unit Conversions

13
4. Review Alpha loading Loading System “A” Refer loading system “A” – Page 10 Calculate the weight and balance given the following information: BEW – 1050kg Empty Index Units Row 1 – 150kg Row 2 (Forward Facing) – 160kg Row 3 – 120kg Nose Baggage – 40kg Rear Baggage – Nil Fuel – 113kg

14
Loading System “A” Step 1: Enter weights of load items in boxes on right hand side Step 2: Total the weights to obtain ZFW and Take Off Weight Review Alpha loading

15
Loading System “A” Step 3: Enter chart with the Index Units given (-260) Draw line down next reference line Step 4: Move to the left or right (follow direction of arrow) by the load indicated Draw line down next reference line Repeat steps 3 and 4 for all load items 4. Review Alpha loading

16
Loading System “A” Step 5: Continue line down into CoG envelope Step 6: Determine where the CoG is for ZFW and Take Off Weight 4. Review Alpha loading

17
4. Review Bravo loading Loading System “B” Refer loading system “B” – Page 12 Calculate the weight and balance given the following information: EW – 1260lbs Note: Empty Weight DOES NOT include oil Empty Moment/1000 – Oil – 15lbs Row 1 – 300lbs Row 2 – 200lbs Baggage – 20lbs Fuel – 180lbs

18
Loading System “B” Step 1: Fill in all information from question (Weights/Moment’s) 4. Review Bravo loading StationWeight(lbs)ArmMoment/1000 Empty Weight Oil Row 1 Row 2 Baggage Fuel Zero Fuel Weight Take Off Weight

19
Loading System “B” Step 2: Calculate ZFW and TOW 4. Review Bravo loading StationWeight(lbs)ArmMoment/1000 Empty Weight Oil Row 1 Row 2 Baggage Fuel Zero Fuel Weight Take Off Weight

20
Loading System “B” Step 3: Determine Moment/1000 for each location 4. Review Bravo loading StationWeight(lbs)ArmMoment/1000 Empty Weight Oil Row 1 Row 2 Baggage Fuel Zero Fuel Weight Take Off Weight *32 / 1000 = 0.48

21
Loading System “B” Step 3: Determine Moment/1000 for each location 4. Review Bravo loading StationWeight(lbs)Moment/1000 Empty Weight Oil Row 1 Row 2 Baggage Fuel Zero Fuel Weight Take Off Weight

22
Loading System “B” Step 4: Calculate Moment/1000 for ZFW and TOW 4. Review Bravo loading StationWeight(lbs)ArmMoment/1000 Empty Weight Oil Row 1 Row 2 Baggage Fuel Zero Fuel Weight Take Off Weight

23
Loading System “B” Step 5: Plot Moment/1000 in envelope to determine if within limits 4. Review Bravo loading StationWeight(lbs)Moment/1000 ZFW TOW

24
Loading System “C” Refer Loading System “C” – Page 14 Calculate the weight and balance given the following information: Empty Weight – 687kg Note: Empty Weight DOES NOT include oil Empty Index Units (Moment/100) – 19,522 Full Oil – 7kg Row 1 – 140kg Row 2 – 160kg Baggage – 20kg Fuel – 140lt 4. Review Charlie loading

25
Loading System “C” Step 1: Fill in all information from question (Weights/Moment’s) Weight (Kg)Arm (mm)Moment/100 (Kg-mm) Empty Weight Oil Row 1 Row 2 Baggage ZFW Fuel Take Off Weight lt x 0.72 = , Review Charlie loading

26
Loading System “C” Step 2: Calculate ZFW and Take Off Weight Weight (Kg)Arm (mm)Moment/100 (Kg-mm) Empty Weight Oil Row 1 Row 2 Baggage ZFW Fuel Take Off Weight , ,014 1, Review Charlie loading

27
Loading System “C” Step 3: Determine arm’s for each location Weight (Kg)Arm (mm)Moment/100 (Kg-mm) Empty Weight Oil Row 1 Row 2 Baggage ZFW Fuel Take Off Weight , ,014 1,115 1,230 2,750 3,600 4,210 2, Review Charlie loading

28
Loading System “C” Step 4: Calculate moment for each location. Moment = (Weight x Arm) / 100 Weight (Kg)Arm (mm)Moment/100 (Kg-mm) Empty Weight Oil Row 1 Row 2 Baggage ZFW Fuel Take Off Weight ,014 1,115 1,230 2,750 3,600 4,210 2,950 19, ,850 5, , Review Charlie loading

29
Loading System “C” Step 5: Calculate moment for ZFW and Take off Weight Weight (Kg)Arm (mm)Moment/100 (Kg-mm) Empty Weight Oil Row 1 Row 2 Baggage ZFW Fuel Take Off Weight ,014 1,115 1,230 2,750 3,600 4,210 2,950 19, ,850 5, ,979 30,060 33, Review Charlie loading

30
Loading System “C” Step 6: Determine CoG position (arm) for ZFW and Take off Weight. CoG = (Moment x 100) / Weight Weight (Kg)Arm (mm)Moment/100 (Kg-mm) Empty Weight Oil Row 1 Row 2 Baggage ZFW Fuel Take Off Weight ,014 1,115 1,230 2,750 3,600 4,210 2,950 19, ,850 5, ,979 30,060 33,039 2,965 2, Review Charlie loading

31
Loading System “C” Step 7: Plot CoG in envelope and determine if it is within limits Weight (Kg)Arm (mm) Empty Weight Oil Row 1 Row 2 Baggage ZFW Fuel Take Off Weight ,230 2,750 3,600 4,210 2,950 1,014 1,115 2,965 2, Review Charlie loading

32
Alpha BEW 830kg, -270 iu Max fuel 252kg Row 1 = 152kg Row 2 = 154kg Row 3 = 156kg Max Baggage? Calculate with the assumption of carrying maximum baggage 5. Alpha weight shifting

33
Alpha The ZFW CoG is outside the limits! Lets try reducing some of the rear baggage. Calculate the chart and assume 0kg in the rear (you may pick either rear or forward) 5. Alpha weight shifting

34
Alpha The ZFW CoG is outside the limits! Lets try reducing some of the rear baggage. Calculate the chart and assume 0kg in the rear (you may pick either rear or forward) Plot the new CoG & draw a line between old + new CoG 5. Alpha weight shifting ~25kg difference before reaching rear limit of graph

35
Alpha Therefore: Max baggage rear compartment = 25kg Max baggage forward compartment = 45kg Thus, total baggage = 25kg + 45kg = 70kg Replot the graph & notice the CoG is now just within limits As fuel is burnt the CoG will move down the vertical line 5. Alpha weight shifting

36
Bravo 5. Bravo weight shifting Calculate Max baggage with given conditions: (assume 0kg bags) StationWeight(lbs)ArmMoment/1000 Empty Weight Oil Row 1 Row 2 Baggage Fuel Zero Fuel Weight Take Off Weight ? ?

37
Bravo 5. Bravo weight shifting. As fuel burns from TOW it will follow the blue line down to ZFW

38
Bravo 5. Bravo weight shifting Re-Calculate W+B with a larger number of sample baggage (any large number will do, eg: 120 lb StationWeight(lbs)ArmMoment/1000 Empty Weight Oil Row 1 Row 2 Baggage Fuel NEW Zero Fuel Weight NEW Take Off Weight

39
Bravo 5. Bravo weight shifting Re-Plot the ‘NEW’ weights The TOW is outside graph limits by 60 lb ~ 60 lb over weight

40
Bravo 5. Bravo weight shifting The new TOW was 60 lb over the graphs upper limit, therefore: Reduce the amount of sample baggage by 60 lb Replot the graph to find all weights within graph limits StationWeight(lbs)ArmMoment/1000 Empty Weight Oil Row 1 Row 2 Baggage Fuel Re-calc Zero Fuel Weight Re-calc Take Off Weight

41
Charlie Calculate the maximum baggage that can be carried: Empty Weight – 687kg Note: Empty Weight DOES NOT include oil Empty Index Units (Moment/100) – 19,522 Full Oil – 7kg Row 1 – 160kg Row 2 – 160kg Fuel – 140lt 5. Charlie weight shifting

42
Charlie Fill out the table and assume zero baggage at first Total the moments & calculate TOW CoG 5. Charlie weight shifting Weight (Kg)Arm (mm)Moment/100 (Kg-mm) Empty Weight Oil Row 1 Row 2 Baggage ZFW Fuel Take Off Weight lt x 0.72 = 101kg 994 1,095 1,230 2,750 3,600 4,210 2,950 19, ,400 5, , ,027.52,924

43
Charlie 5. Charlie weight shifting Plot the TOW and see it lies within the CoG envelope

44
Charlie Fill out the table and add additional sample baggage Total the moments & calculate the ‘new’ TOW CoG 5. Charlie weight shifting Weight (Kg)Arm (mm)Moment/100 (Kg-mm) Empty Weight Oil Row 1 Row 2 Baggage ZFW Fuel ‘new’ Take Off Weight lt x 0.72 = 101kg 1,024 1,125 1,230 2,750 3,600 4,210 2,950 19, ,400 5, , , ,959

45
Charlie 5. Charlie weight shifting Re-Plot the ‘new’ TOW and compare to the original TOW Draw a line between the two CoG The ‘new’ TOW is approx 15kg overweight ~ 15kg over weight

46
Charlie 5. Charlie weight shifting The TOW was 15kg overweight. The sample baggage amount was 30kg 30kg – 15kg = 15kg. Therefore maximum baggage permitted is 15kg. Readjustment & replotting of the CoG on graph will illustrate this

47
VH-ECO – Hypothetical Echo loaded aircraft 6. Echo Aircraft VH-ECO MTOW 2950kg Max Ramp Weight 2958kg MZFW 2630kg MLW 2725kg

48
. 6. Echo Aircraft.

49
Weight limits of aircraft floor 7. Floor loading The max loading is 450kg per m 2. The syntax for calculation of volume is Length x Width x Height (in this order) This loading limit applies to all cargo compartments Eg: A box of Dodo eggs weighing 60kg and measuring 35cm (l) x 30cm (w) x 20cm (h) is to be shipped. Is this possible? 0.3m (w) 0.35m (l) 0.2m (h) Floor Area = 0.3 x 0.35 = 0.105m m 2 x 450kg/m 2 = 47.25kg The box is too heavy! It should be reduced by 60kg – 47.25kg = 12.75kg

50
Cargo with cleats 7. Floor loading Cleats are 50mm wide Greater weight is acting over a smaller area This will increase pressure & loading over the floor Therefore, adversely reducing the amount of weight permitted 50mm (w) Floor Area = 0.05 (cleat) x 2 x 0.35 = 0.035m m 2 x 450kg/m 2 = 15.75kg permitted Maximum permitted weight is 15.75kg Quite a reduction!

51
. 8. Fuel Planning What does the CAAP 234 require? Flight Fuel (FF) Alternative (if needed) Variable Reserve (VR), 15% of Flight Fuel Fixed Reserve (FR) 45minutes of fuel burn For the Echo, 15 USG = 41kg Holding Fuel (INTER or TEMPO) Taxi fuel, for the Echo 3 USG = 8kg Are CAAP’s mandatory? No – but CASA exams are written in accordance with CAAP

52
Calc min fuel &max payload: 8. Fuel Planning Flying from Parafield to Moorabbin: Fuel req = 89 USG BEW = 1,920 kg Pilot = 77 kg Seats removed for max payload Minimum Fuel: FF 240 kg (89 USG x 2.7 = 230kg) VR 36 kg (15% of flight fuel) FR41 kg (45minutes) Taxi 8 kg TOTAL325 kg.

53
Calc min fuel &max payload: 8. Fuel Planning Neither MZFW, MTOW, or MLW should be exceeded. LimitWeight MZFW2,630 MTOW2,950 MLW2,725 Actual ZFW2630 kg + Total Fuel+ 317 kg Actual TOW2,947 kg - Fuel Burn240 kg Actual LW2,707 kg None of the weight limits have been exceeded, Next step is to focus on the ZFW and calculate the Payload

54
Calc min fuel &max payload: 8. Fuel Planning TOW & LW are not limiting, so… Weight Actual ZFW2630 kg - BEW kg - Pilot77 kg Payload633 kg This is OK, as max payload is 705 kg 705kg is derived from: (cargo) + (77 x 5) (seats) = 705 kg

55
Calc max payload: 8. Fuel Planning You decide to refuel at Moorabbin to full tanks & go to Bankstown, assume same specs as previous question. YMMB YBSK First determine FUEL Mains100 USG AUX80 USG Taxi 3 USG X 2.7 Total476 kg Flight Fuel = 240 kg FF 240 kg MLW 2,725 kg

56
Calc max payload: 8. Fuel Planning Start from ZFW again, LimitWeight MZFW2,630 MTOW2,950 MLW2,725 Actual ZFW2630 kg + Total Fuel+ 476 kg Actual TOW3106 kg - Fuel Burn kg Actual LW2710 kg If we keep the original ZFW and add full fuel, we are TOW limited! Adjust the TOW to its permitted limit Re-adjust the ZFW by subtracting the Fuel on Board ZFW permitted is 2,474 kg 2950 kg kg 2474 kg ↑ ↓

57
Calc max payload: 8. Fuel Planning New ZFW permitted is 2,474 kg Backtrack to calculate payload permitted Weight Actual ZFW2474 kg - BEW kg - Pilot77 kg Payload477 kg Max payload is 477 kg This is permitted as it is less than max payload of 705 kg

58
Balance terminology 9. CoG & MAC Centre of gravity If the aircraft were suspended, it is a point which gravity can be said to act through Datum The reference from which all measurements are taken Arm The distance from the reference/datum where a specified weight is said to act Moment The turning effect/torque created through the product of an Arm & Weight (arm dist x weight kg). For the Echo moments are divided by 10’000

59
Mean Aerodynamic Chord MAC 9. CoG & MAC Aerodynamic chord is? A line joining Leading Edge & Trailing Edge. MAC is the chord of an imaginary rectangular wing with the same aerodynamic characteristics of an actual wing. Mean/Average chord used in calculations MAC LE MAC 2190mm TE MAC 4090mm DATUM 1900mm

60
Mean Aerodynamic Chord MAC 9. CoG & MAC CoG as % of MAC = dist from LE MAC / MAC = (2650 – 2190) / 1900 = 24 % 10-30% is generally the case for most a/c The CoG should be forward of Centre of Pressure so if engine failure, the nose will drop rather than tail MAC limits/boundaries vary depending on weight MAC LE MAC 2190mm TE MAC 4090mm DATUM 1900mm CoG = 2650 mm Rear Limit = 2680 mm (always) Fwd limit = 2400mm (if TOW <2360kg) = 2560mm (if TOW = 2950kg)

61
Mean Aerodynamic Chord MAC 9. CoG & MAC Rear Limit = 2680 mm (always) Fwd limit = 2400mm (if TOW <2360kg) = 2560mm (if TOW >2360kg) DATUM 2680mm 2400mm 2560mm 2360 kg 2400 mm 2680 mm 2560mm 2950 kg As weight increases the Forward Limit moves rearward (right) at a rate of mm/kg.

62
Mean Aerodynamic Chord MAC 9. CoG & MAC If the Gross Weight is greater than 2360 kg, the Forward Limit must be calculated to ensure aircraft is in balance! Eg: Aircraft is 2790 kg, and CoG is 2523mm. Is this within limits? Rear limit = 2680 mm Fwd Limit = 2400mm + (2790 – 2360)x = 2516 mm 2360 kg 2400 mm 2680 mm 2560mm 2950 kg As weight increases the Forward Limit moves rearward (right) at a rate of mm/kg kg 2516 mm limit 2523 mm

63
Basic Empty Weight 10. Echo features BEW for an Echo loading question will be provided in the exam BEW assumes all seats are loaded into the aircraft BEW & Moment should be modified if seats removed Each seat weighs 5kg. Each seat row has an arm length. Eg: To maximise cargo the pilot removes 5 seats, adjust the BEW (1998kg, 488 IU) WeightArm mmIU/10’000 BEW1998 kg - Row 1-5 kg - Row 2-10 kg - Row 3 New BEW1973 kg -10 kg 2290mm 3300mm 4300mm IU

64
Loading the Echo 10. Echo features The Echo is similar to Charlie loading Generate a table & multiply weights X arm to give Index Units Calculate the CoG & plot on graph to check balance WeightArm mmIU/10’000 BEW Row Row Row Fwd cargo Rear Cargo Total mm642.42

65
Loading the Echo 10. Echo features. Rearwards CoG Forwards CoG

66
Fuel Management 10. Echo features Fuelling: Add fuel to mains first (100usg/269kg) Add fuel to auxiliaries as required thereafter (80usg/215kg) Main tanks for taxi, takeoff, & descent Auxiliaries for cruise Mains burn fuel, CoG moves rearward (1780mm) AUX burn fuel CoG moves forward (2800mm) 2560 mm 2360 kg 2400 mm 2680 mm 2950 kg 261kg burning from mains 215kg burning from AUX

67
DATUM Weight 2 Weight 1 Arm 2 Arm 1 Original CoG Desired CoG Weight shifting with Echo 10. Echo features 2 adverse conditions exist, either: CoG too far FWD CoG too far REAR Solutions? Remove weight? Add ballast? Redistribute weight around aircraft?

68
Weight shifting with Echo 10. Echo features Shifting weight for a CoG change assume conservation of moments Adverse situation: GW x CoG 1 = moments + (weight to be shifted kg x arm 1) Desired situation: GW x CoG 2 = moments + (weight shifted kg x arm 2) The difference of which is: GW x (CoG2 – CoG1) = weight shift x (Arm2 – Arm1) GW x (CoG2 – CoG1) Arm2 – Arm1 = Weight Shift

69
Weight shifting with Echo 10. Echo features Eg: BEW 1980kg 468 IU, PoB 74,80,79,77,77,75kg, rear cargo 150kg, is this in balance? Total fuel 155usg (3usg taxi) WeightArm mmIU/10’000 BEW Row = Row = Row = Rear Cargo ZFW2592 Fuel TOW 2685 mm696

70
Weight shifting with Echo 10. Echo features OUTSIDE LIMIT! CoG too far REAR! Shift from Rear to FWD cargo locker?

71
Weight shifting with Echo 10. Echo features Eg: BEW 1980kg 468 IU, PoB 74,80,79,77,77,75kg, rear cargo 150kg, is this in balance? Total fuel 155usg (3usg taxi) 2685 kg x (5mm) 5000mm – 500mm = Weight Shift = 3kg CoG is 2685mm, this is 5mm outside 2680mm rear limit! Therefore, shift 3kg from the rear cargo compartment to forward cargo compartment GW x (CoG2 – CoG1) Arm2 – Arm1 = Weight Shift

72
Weight shifting with Echo 10. Echo features Eg: BEW 1980kg 468 IU, PoB 74,80,79,77,77,75kg, rear cargo 150kg, is this in balance? Total fuel 155usg (3usg taxi) WeightArm mmIU/10’000 BEW Row = Row = Row = Rear Cargo ZFW2592 Rear Fwd cargo - (3 x 4500)-1.4 Amd ZFW2592 Fuel Main97usg=261kg Fuel Aux36usg=87kg TOW mm mm694.6

73
Weight shifting with Echo 10. Echo features ZFW & TOW WITHIN LIMITS TOW ZFW

74
Ballast in the Echo 10. Echo features What if the ZFW is out of balance? Aircraft will be laterally/longitudinally unstable! Add weight to rear/fwd of aircraft/visa versa Ballast Weight added to an object to improve stability Eg: Aircraft loaded to ZFW 2300 kg, 575 IU, FoB 110usg Is the aircraft in balance, and if not how much ballast is required? WeightArm mmIU/10’000 ZFW2300 kg Fuel Main97usg=261kg Fuel AUX45usg=121kg TOW2682 kg 1780mm 2800mm IU Flight Fuel110 usg 16.5 usg VR 15 usg FR usg Fuel Mains T/O 97usg = 261kg 45usg = 121kg Fuel AUX

75
Ballast in the Echo 10. Echo features TOW OUTSIDE LIMITS ! TOW Our options: Reduce weight? Add rear ballast?

76
Ballast in the Echo 10. Echo features The CoG must be shifted – this is similar to? Alpha, Bravo, & Charlie! Add sample weight to rear locker Replot ‘new TOW’ againt original TOW WeightArm mmIU/10’000 ZFW2300 kg Fuel Main97usg=261kg Fuel AUX45usg=121kg ‘new’ TOW 2782 kg 1780mm 2800mm IU +Rear Cargo +100kg mm

77
Ballast in the Echo 10. Echo features ‘new’ CoG within limits! TOW 2682kg Add 68kg to put aircraft TOW into limits ‘new’ TOW 2782kg

78
Ballast in the Echo 10. Echo features Add 68kg to rear locker Replot ‘new TOW’ againt original TOW WeightArm mmIU/10’000 ZFW2300 kg Fuel Main97usg=261kg Fuel AUX45usg=121kg ‘new’ TOW 2750 kg 1780mm 2800mm IU +Rear Cargo +68kg mm

79
Questions?

Similar presentations

© 2017 SlidePlayer.com Inc.

All rights reserved.

Ads by Google