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Loading ATC Chapter 2.

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1 Loading ATC Chapter 2

2 Aim To calculate weight & balance data for various loading systems/aircrafts

3 Objectives Define weight terminology Standard Passenger weights
Conversions Review loading systems Alpha, Bravo, Charlie Shifting weights within Alpha, Bravo, Charlie The ‘Echo Aircraft’ Define & calculate floor loading for Echo Fuel planning for Echo aircraft Define centre of gravity & M.A.C for Echo Explain & demonstrate use of the Echo loading systems

4 1. Weight terminology Basic Empty Weight
Weight of aircraft including fixed equipment, unusable fuel, full oil Empty Weight Same as BEW however ONLY include undrainable oil Zero Fuel Weight Gross weight of aircraft plus payload not inclusive of fuel Max Zero Fuel Weight Large aircraft have a max structural limit of how much aircraft can weigh/carry before the load of fuel balances the forces exerted Max Ramp Weight Max gross weight permitted prior to taxiing. Generally exceeds MTOW and is made up of fuel to be burnt during taxi

5 1. Weight terminology Max Take-Off Weight
Max permissible weight according to the certificate of airworthiness or approved flight manual. It is structural limitation of aircraft Performance-Limited TOW If due to terrain, altitude, obstacles, runway length, etc conditions, the MTOW may be required to be reduced to account for this. Max Landing Weight Max permissible weight the aircraft may be at upon landing. Specific Fuel Weight The weight of fuel in comparison to water. 1kg of water = 1lt of water, 1lt AVGAS 100/130 = 0.71kg

6 1. Weight terminology Balance
Centre of Gravity (CoG) – Point where all the weight is said to act. Also the point about which the aircraft pivots Datum – The point which ALL measurements of arms are taken from. For the 172SP this is the lower portion of the front face of the firewall Arm/Moment arm – Horizontal distance from reference datum to each item in the aircraft Datum Arm CoG

7 1. Weight terminology Balance
Moment – Turning force about any given point. Depends on: size of the force and the moment arm. Moment (kg-mm) = Force(kg) x Distance(mm) Index Unit – When calculating W&B the moments are often quite large. To make them smaller we can divide them by a constant eg.10,000. Where 1 index unit = 10,000 units.

8 1. Weight terminology Aft CoG
The more aft the CoG, the more unstable the aircraft. Forward pressure on the elevator control and full nose-down trim may be necessary to keep the aircraft from pitching up and stalling. The need for increased forward pressure on the elevator control, and a tendency for the aircraft to take off in a dangerously nose-high attitude, are symptoms of an aft CoG. Aft CoG movement has caused a number of accidents, including this one where unsecured parachutists moved to the back of the aircraft shortly before take-off

9 1. Weight terminology Forward CoG
The more forward the CoG, the more stable the aircraft. Back pressure on the elevator control and full nose-up trim may be necessary. It will be difficult to rotate and flare (assuming that there is enough elevator control available to have become airborne in the first place)

10 1. Weight terminology Pilot Responsibilities
The pilot in command of an aircraft must ensure the aircraft does not operate above any weight limits and remains in balance for the duration of the flight When calculating aircraft weight and balance the PIC must take into account: Total weight Position of the weight Movement of the weight during flight Fuel burn

11 2. Standard pax weights CAAP 235
To simplify balance & loading in larger commercial/RPT aircraft passenger weights are standardized. Use only for aircraft with more than 7 passenger seats (extract CAAP 235)

12 3. Unit Conversions Multiply in the direction of conversion

13 4. Review Alpha loading Loading System “A”
Refer loading system “A” – Page 10 Calculate the weight and balance given the following information: BEW – 1050kg Empty Index Units Row 1 – 150kg Row 2 (Forward Facing) – 160kg Row 3 – 120kg Nose Baggage – 40kg Rear Baggage – Nil Fuel – 113kg

14 4. Review Alpha loading Loading System “A”
Step 1: Enter weights of load items in boxes on right hand side Step 2: Total the weights to obtain ZFW and Take Off Weight 1050 150 160 - - - 120 40 - - 1520 113 1633

15 4. Review Alpha loading Loading System “A”
Step 3: Enter chart with the Index Units given (-260) Draw line down next reference line Step 4: Move to the left or right (follow direction of arrow) by the load indicated Repeat steps 3 and 4 for all load items 1050 150 160 - - - 120 40 - - 1520 113 1633

16 4. Review Alpha loading Loading System “A”
Step 5: Continue line down into CoG envelope Step 6: Determine where the CoG is for ZFW and Take Off Weight 40 - - 1520 113 1633

17 4. Review Bravo loading Loading System “B”
Refer loading system “B” – Page 12 Calculate the weight and balance given the following information: EW – 1260lbs Note: Empty Weight DOES NOT include oil Empty Moment/1000 – 100.8 Oil – 15lbs Row 1 – 300lbs Row 2 – 200lbs Baggage – 20lbs Fuel – 180lbs

18 4. Review Bravo loading Loading System “B”
Step 1: Fill in all information from question (Weights/Moment’s) Station Weight(lbs) Arm Moment/1000 Empty Weight 1260 100.8 Oil 15 32 Row 1 300 Row 2 200 Baggage 20 Zero Fuel Weight Fuel 180 Take Off Weight

19 4. Review Bravo loading Loading System “B”
Step 2: Calculate ZFW and TOW Station Weight(lbs) Arm Moment/1000 Empty Weight 1260 100.8 Oil 15 32 Row 1 300 Row 2 200 Baggage 20 Zero Fuel Weight 1795 Fuel 180 Take Off Weight 1975

20 4. Review Bravo loading Loading System “B”
Step 3: Determine Moment/1000 for each location Station Weight(lbs) Arm Moment/1000 Empty Weight 1260 100.8 Oil 15 32 15*32 / 1000 = 0.48 Row 1 300 Row 2 200 Baggage 20 Zero Fuel Weight 1795 Fuel 180 Take Off Weight 1975

21 4. Review Bravo loading Loading System “B”
Step 3: Determine Moment/1000 for each location Station Weight(lbs) Moment/1000 Empty Weight 1260 100.8 Oil 15 0.48 Row 1 300 27 Row 2 200 25 Baggage 20 Zero Fuel Weight 1795 Fuel 180 Take Off Weight 1975

22 4. Review Bravo loading Loading System “B”
Step 4: Calculate Moment/1000 for ZFW and TOW Station Weight(lbs) Arm Moment/1000 Empty Weight 1260 100.8 Oil 15 32 0.48 Row 1 300 27 Row 2 200 25 Baggage 20 3.5 Zero Fuel Weight 1795 156.78 Fuel 180 16 Take Off Weight 1975 172.78

23 4. Review Bravo loading Loading System “B”
Step 5: Plot Moment/1000 in envelope to determine if within limits Station Weight(lbs) Moment/1000 ZFW 1795 156.78 TOW 1975 172.78

24 4. Review Charlie loading
Loading System “C” Refer Loading System “C” – Page 14 Calculate the weight and balance given the following information: Empty Weight – 687kg Note: Empty Weight DOES NOT include oil Empty Index Units (Moment/100) – 19,522 Full Oil – 7kg Row 1 – 140kg Row 2 – 160kg Baggage – 20kg Fuel – 140lt

25 4. Review Charlie loading
Loading System “C” Step 1: Fill in all information from question (Weights/Moment’s) Weight (Kg) Arm (mm) Moment/100 (Kg-mm) Empty Weight Oil Row 1 Row 2 Baggage ZFW Fuel Take Off Weight 687 19,522 7 140 160 20 140lt x 0.72 = 101

26 4. Review Charlie loading
Loading System “C” Step 2: Calculate ZFW and Take Off Weight Weight (Kg) Arm (mm) Moment/100 (Kg-mm) Empty Weight Oil Row 1 Row 2 Baggage ZFW Fuel Take Off Weight 687 19,522 7 140 160 20 1,014 101 1,115

27 4. Review Charlie loading
Loading System “C” Step 3: Determine arm’s for each location Weight (Kg) Arm (mm) Moment/100 (Kg-mm) Empty Weight Oil Row 1 Row 2 Baggage ZFW Fuel Take Off Weight 687 19,522 7 1,230 140 2,750 160 3,600 20 4,210 1,014 101 2,950 1,115

28 4. Review Charlie loading
Loading System “C” Step 4: Calculate moment for each location. Moment = (Weight x Arm) / 100 Weight (Kg) Arm (mm) Moment/100 (Kg-mm) Empty Weight Oil Row 1 Row 2 Baggage ZFW Fuel Take Off Weight 687 19,522 7 1,230 86 140 2,750 3,850 160 3,600 5,760 20 4,210 842 1,014 101 2,950 2,979 1,115

29 4. Review Charlie loading
Loading System “C” Step 5: Calculate moment for ZFW and Take off Weight Weight (Kg) Arm (mm) Moment/100 (Kg-mm) Empty Weight Oil Row 1 Row 2 Baggage ZFW Fuel Take Off Weight 687 19,522 7 1,230 86 140 2,750 3,850 160 3,600 5,760 20 4,210 842 1,014 30,060 101 2,950 2,979 1,115 33,039

30 4. Review Charlie loading
Loading System “C” Step 6: Determine CoG position (arm) for ZFW and Take off Weight. CoG = (Moment x 100) / Weight Weight (Kg) Arm (mm) Moment/100 (Kg-mm) Empty Weight Oil Row 1 Row 2 Baggage ZFW Fuel Take Off Weight 687 19,522 7 1,230 86 140 2,750 3,850 160 3,600 5,760 20 4,210 842 1,014 2,965 30,060 101 2,950 2,979 1,115 2,963 33,039

31 4. Review Charlie loading
Loading System “C” Step 7: Plot CoG in envelope and determine if it is within limits Weight (Kg) Arm (mm) Empty Weight Oil Row 1 Row 2 Baggage ZFW Fuel Take Off Weight 687 7 1,230 140 2,750 160 3,600 20 4,210 1,014 2,965 101 2,950 1,115 2,963

32 5. Alpha weight shifting Alpha BEW 830kg, -270 iu Max fuel 252kg
Row 1 = 152kg Row 2 = 154kg Row 3 = 156kg Max Baggage? Calculate with the assumption of carrying maximum baggage 830 152 154 - - - 156 45 45 1382 252 1634

33 5. Alpha weight shifting Alpha The ZFW CoG is outside the limits!
Lets try reducing some of the rear baggage. Calculate the chart and assume 0kg in the rear (you may pick either rear or forward) 45 45 1382 252 1634

34 5. Alpha weight shifting Alpha The ZFW CoG is outside the limits!
Lets try reducing some of the rear baggage. Calculate the chart and assume 0kg in the rear (you may pick either rear or forward) Plot the new CoG & draw a line between old + new CoG 45 - - 1337 252 1589 ~25kg difference before reaching rear limit of graph

35 5. Alpha weight shifting Alpha Therefore:
Max baggage rear compartment = 25kg Max baggage forward compartment = 45kg Thus, total baggage = 25kg + 45kg = 70kg Replot the graph & notice the CoG is now just within limits As fuel is burnt the CoG will move down the vertical line

36 5. Bravo weight shifting Bravo
Calculate Max baggage with given conditions: (assume 0kg bags) Station Weight(lbs) Arm Moment/1000 Empty Weight 1260 100.8 Oil 15 32 0.48 Row 1 346 31.5 Row 2 297 37.4 Baggage ? ? Zero Fuel Weight 1918 170.18 Fuel 222 21.3 Take Off Weight 2140 191.48

37 5. Bravo weight shifting Bravo .
As fuel burns from TOW it will follow the blue line down to ZFW

38 5. Bravo weight shifting Bravo
Re-Calculate W+B with a larger number of sample baggage (any large number will do, eg: 120 lb Station Weight(lbs) Arm Moment/1000 Empty Weight 1260 100.8 Oil 15 32 0.48 Row 1 346 31.5 Row 2 297 37.4 Baggage 120 18 NEW Zero Fuel Weight 2038 188.18 Fuel 222 21.3 NEW Take Off Weight 2260 209.48

39 5. Bravo weight shifting Bravo Re-Plot the ‘NEW’ weights
~ 60 lb over weight Re-Plot the ‘NEW’ weights The TOW is outside graph limits by 60 lb

40 5. Bravo weight shifting Bravo
The new TOW was 60 lb over the graphs upper limit, therefore: Reduce the amount of sample baggage by 60 lb Replot the graph to find all weights within graph limits Station Weight(lbs) Arm Moment/1000 Empty Weight 1260 100.8 Oil 15 32 0.48 Row 1 346 31.5 Row 2 297 37.4 Baggage 120 60 18 9 Re-calc Zero Fuel Weight 1978 179.18 Fuel 222 21.3 Re-calc Take Off Weight 2200 200.48

41 5. Charlie weight shifting
Calculate the maximum baggage that can be carried: Empty Weight – 687kg Note: Empty Weight DOES NOT include oil Empty Index Units (Moment/100) – 19,522 Full Oil – 7kg Row 1 – 160kg Row 2 – 160kg Fuel – 140lt

42 5. Charlie weight shifting
Fill out the table and assume zero baggage at first Total the moments & calculate TOW CoG Weight (Kg) Arm (mm) Moment/100 (Kg-mm) Empty Weight Oil Row 1 Row 2 Baggage ZFW Fuel Take Off Weight 687 19,522 7 1,230 86 160 2,750 4,400 140 3,600 5,040 4,210 994 140lt x 0.72 = 101kg 2,950 2,979.5 1,095 2,924 32,027.5

43 5. Charlie weight shifting
Plot the TOW and see it lies within the CoG envelope

44 5. Charlie weight shifting
Fill out the table and add additional sample baggage Total the moments & calculate the ‘new’ TOW CoG Weight (Kg) Arm (mm) Moment/100 (Kg-mm) Empty Weight Oil Row 1 Row 2 Baggage ZFW Fuel ‘new’ Take Off Weight 687 19,522 7 1,230 86 160 2,750 4,400 140 3,600 5,040 30 4,210 1263 1,024 140lt x 0.72 = 101kg 2,950 2,979.5 1,125 2,959 33,290.5

45 5. Charlie weight shifting
~ 15kg over weight Charlie Re-Plot the ‘new’ TOW and compare to the original TOW Draw a line between the two CoG The ‘new’ TOW is approx 15kg overweight

46 5. Charlie weight shifting
The TOW was 15kg overweight. The sample baggage amount was 30kg 30kg – 15kg = 15kg. Therefore maximum baggage permitted is 15kg. Readjustment & replotting of the CoG on graph will illustrate this

47 6. Echo Aircraft VH-ECO – Hypothetical Echo loaded aircraft
MTOW 2950kg Max Ramp Weight 2958kg MZFW 2630kg MLW 2725kg VH-ECO

48 6. Echo Aircraft . .

49 7. Floor loading Weight limits of aircraft floor
The max loading is 450kg per m2 . The syntax for calculation of volume is Length x Width x Height (in this order) This loading limit applies to all cargo compartments Eg: A box of Dodo eggs weighing 60kg and measuring 35cm (l) x 30cm (w) x 20cm (h) is to be shipped. Is this possible? Floor Area = 0.3 x 0.35 = 0.105m2 . 0.105m2 x 450kg/m2 = 47.25kg The box is too heavy! It should be reduced by 60kg – 47.25kg = 12.75kg 0.2m (h) 0.3m (w) 0.35m (l)

50 7. Floor loading Cargo with cleats Cleats are 50mm wide
Greater weight is acting over a smaller area This will increase pressure & loading over the floor Therefore, adversely reducing the amount of weight permitted Floor Area = 0.05 (cleat) x 2 x 0.35 = 0.035m2 . 0.035m2 x 450kg/m2 = 15.75kg permitted Maximum permitted weight is 15.75kg Quite a reduction! 50mm (w)

51 8. Fuel Planning . What does the CAAP 234 require? Flight Fuel (FF)
Alternative (if needed) Variable Reserve (VR), 15% of Flight Fuel Fixed Reserve (FR) 45minutes of fuel burn For the Echo, 15 USG = 41kg Holding Fuel (INTER or TEMPO) Taxi fuel, for the Echo 3 USG = 8kg Are CAAP’s mandatory? No – but CASA exams are written in accordance with CAAP

52 8. Fuel Planning Calc min fuel &max payload:
Flying from Parafield to Moorabbin: Fuel req = 89 USG BEW = 1,920 kg Pilot = 77 kg Seats removed for max payload Minimum Fuel: FF 240 kg (89 USG x 2.7 = 230kg) VR 36 kg (15% of flight fuel) FR 41 kg (45minutes) Taxi 8 kg TOTAL 325 kg.

53 8. Fuel Planning Calc min fuel &max payload:   
Neither MZFW, MTOW, or MLW should be exceeded. Limit Weight MZFW 2,630 MTOW 2,950 MLW 2,725 Actual ZFW 2630 kg + Total Fuel + 317 kg Actual TOW 2,947 kg - Fuel Burn 240 kg Actual LW 2,707 kg None of the weight limits have been exceeded, Next step is to focus on the ZFW and calculate the Payload

54 8. Fuel Planning Calc min fuel &max payload:   
TOW & LW are not limiting, so… Weight Actual ZFW 2630 kg - BEW kg - Pilot 77 kg Payload 633 kg This is OK, as max payload is 705 kg 705kg is derived from: (cargo) + (77 x 5) (seats) = 705 kg

55 8. Fuel Planning Calc max payload:
You decide to refuel at Moorabbin to full tanks & go to Bankstown, assume same specs as previous question. FF 240 kg YMMB YBSK MLW 2,725 kg First determine FUEL Mains 100 USG AUX 80 USG Taxi 3 USG X 2.7 Total 476 kg Flight Fuel = 240 kg

56 8. Fuel Planning Calc max payload:      Start from ZFW again,
Limit Weight MZFW 2,630 MTOW 2,950 MLW 2,725 Actual ZFW 2630 kg 2474 kg + Total Fuel + 476 kg - 476 kg Actual TOW 3106 kg 2950 kg - Fuel Burn - 240 kg Actual LW 2710 kg If we keep the original ZFW and add full fuel, we are TOW limited! Adjust the TOW to its permitted limit Re-adjust the ZFW by subtracting the Fuel on Board ZFW permitted is 2,474 kg

57 8. Fuel Planning Calc max payload:    New ZFW permitted is 2,474 kg
Backtrack to calculate payload permitted Weight Actual ZFW 2474 kg - BEW kg - Pilot 77 kg Payload 477 kg Max payload is 477 kg This is permitted as it is less than max payload of 705 kg

58 9. CoG & MAC Balance terminology Centre of gravity
If the aircraft were suspended, it is a point which gravity can be said to act through Datum The reference from which all measurements are taken Arm The distance from the reference/datum where a specified weight is said to act Moment The turning effect/torque created through the product of an Arm & Weight (arm dist x weight kg). For the Echo moments are divided by 10’000

59 9. CoG & MAC Mean Aerodynamic Chord MAC Aerodynamic chord is?
A line joining Leading Edge & Trailing Edge. MAC is the chord of an imaginary rectangular wing with the same aerodynamic characteristics of an actual wing. Mean/Average chord used in calculations MAC LE MAC 2190mm TE MAC 4090mm DATUM 1900mm

60 9. CoG & MAC Mean Aerodynamic Chord MAC
CoG as % of MAC = dist from LE MAC / MAC = (2650 – 2190) / 1900 = 24 % % is generally the case for most a/c The CoG should be forward of Centre of Pressure so if engine failure, the nose will drop rather than tail MAC limits/boundaries vary depending on weight MAC LE MAC 2190mm TE MAC 4090mm DATUM 1900mm CoG = 2650 mm Rear Limit = 2680 mm (always) Fwd limit = 2400mm (if TOW <2360kg) = 2560mm (if TOW = 2950kg)

61 9. CoG & MAC Mean Aerodynamic Chord MAC Rear Limit = 2680 mm (always)
Fwd limit = 2400mm (if TOW <2360kg) = 2560mm (if TOW >2360kg) 2560mm DATUM 2400mm 2680mm 2360 kg 2400 mm 2680 mm 2560mm 2950 kg As weight increases the Forward Limit moves rearward (right) at a rate of mm/kg.

62 9. CoG & MAC Mean Aerodynamic Chord MAC   
If the Gross Weight is greater than 2360 kg, the Forward Limit must be calculated to ensure aircraft is in balance! Eg: Aircraft is 2790 kg, and CoG is 2523mm. Is this within limits? Rear limit = 2680 mm Fwd Limit = 2400mm + (2790 – 2360)x = 2516 mm 2560mm 2950 kg As weight increases the Forward Limit moves rearward (right) at a rate of mm/kg. 2516 mm limit 2790 kg 2523 mm 2360 kg 2400 mm 2680 mm

63 10. Echo features Basic Empty Weight
BEW for an Echo loading question will be provided in the exam BEW assumes all seats are loaded into the aircraft BEW & Moment should be modified if seats removed Each seat weighs 5kg . Each seat row has an arm length. Eg: To maximise cargo the pilot removes 5 seats, adjust the BEW (1998kg, 488 IU) Weight Arm mm IU/10’000 BEW 1998 kg 488 IU - Row 1 -5 kg 2290mm - Row 2 -10 kg 3300mm - 3.3 - Row 3 -10 kg 4300mm - 4.3 New BEW 1973 kg 479.25

64 10. Echo features Loading the Echo
The Echo is similar to Charlie loading Generate a table & multiply weights X arm to give Index Units Calculate the CoG & plot on graph to check balance Weight Arm mm IU/10’000 BEW 1998 2443 488 Row 1 77 2290 17.63 Row 2 154 3300 50.8 Row 3 4300 33.11 Fwd cargo 55 500 2.75 Rear Cargo 100 5000 50 Total 2461 mm 642.42

65 10. Echo features Loading the Echo .  Forwards CoG Rearwards CoG 

66 10. Echo features Fuel Management Fuelling:
2560 mm 2360 kg 2400 mm 2680 mm 2950 kg Fuelling: Add fuel to mains first (100usg/269kg) Add fuel to auxiliaries as required thereafter (80usg/215kg) Main tanks for taxi, takeoff, & descent Auxiliaries for cruise Mains burn fuel, CoG moves rearward (1780mm) AUX burn fuel CoG moves forward (2800mm) 261kg burning from mains 215kg burning from AUX

67 10. Echo features Weight shifting with Echo  
2 adverse conditions exist, either: CoG too far FWD CoG too far REAR Solutions? Remove weight? Add ballast? Redistribute weight around aircraft? DATUM Weight 2 Weight 1 Arm 2 Arm 1 Original CoG Desired CoG

68 10. Echo features Weight shifting with Echo
Shifting weight for a CoG change assume conservation of moments Adverse situation: GW x CoG 1 = moments + (weight to be shifted kg x arm 1) Desired situation: GW x CoG 2 = moments + (weight shifted kg x arm 2) The difference of which is: GW x (CoG2 – CoG1) = weight shift x (Arm2 – Arm1) GW x (CoG2 – CoG1) Arm2 – Arm1 = Weight Shift

69 10. Echo features Weight shifting with Echo
Eg: BEW 1980kg 468 IU, PoB 74,80,79,77,77,75kg, rear cargo 150kg, is this in balance? Total fuel 155usg (3usg taxi) Weight Arm mm IU/10’000 BEW 1980 468 Row 1 74+80 = 154 2290 35.2 Row 2 79+77 = 156 3300 51.5 Row 3 77+75 = 152 4300 65.4 Rear Cargo 150 5000 75 ZFW 2592 Fuel TOW 2685 mm 696

70 10. Echo features Weight shifting with Echo OUTSIDE LIMIT!
CoG too far REAR! Shift from Rear to FWD cargo locker?

71 10. Echo features Weight shifting with Echo
Eg: BEW 1980kg 468 IU, PoB 74,80,79,77,77,75kg, rear cargo 150kg, is this in balance? Total fuel 155usg (3usg taxi) CoG is 2685mm, this is 5mm outside 2680mm rear limit! GW x (CoG2 – CoG1) Arm2 – Arm1 = Weight Shift 2685 kg x (5mm) 5000mm – 500mm = Weight Shift = 3kg Therefore, shift 3kg from the rear cargo compartment to forward cargo compartment

72 10. Echo features Weight shifting with Echo
Eg: BEW 1980kg 468 IU, PoB 74,80,79,77,77,75kg, rear cargo 150kg, is this in balance? Total fuel 155usg (3usg taxi) Weight Arm mm IU/10’000 BEW 1980 468 Row 1 74+80 = 154 2290 35.2 Row 2 79+77 = 156 3300 51.5 Row 3 77+75 = 152 4300 65.4 Rear Cargo 150 5000 75 ZFW 2592 RearFwd cargo - (3 x 4500) -1.4 Amd ZFW Fuel Main 97usg=261kg 1780 46.5 Fuel Aux 36usg=87kg 2800 27.2 TOW 2950 2604 768.3 2685 mm 696 2680mm 694.6

73 10. Echo features Weight shifting with Echo TOW ZFW
ZFW & TOW WITHIN LIMITS

74 10. Echo features Ballast in the Echo
What if the ZFW is out of balance? Aircraft will be laterally/longitudinally unstable! Add weight to rear/fwd of aircraft/visa versa Ballast Weight added to an object to improve stability Eg: Aircraft loaded to ZFW 2300 kg, 575 IU, FoB 110usg Is the aircraft in balance, and if not how much ballast is required? Flight Fuel 110 usg Weight Arm mm IU/10’000 VR 16.5 usg ZFW 2300 kg 575 IU FR 15 usg Fuel Main 97usg=261kg 1780mm 46.5 T/O 141.5 usg Fuel AUX 45usg=121kg 2800mm 33.9 Fuel Mains 97usg = 261kg TOW 2682 kg 655.4 Fuel AUX 45usg = 121kg

75 10. Echo features Ballast in the Echo TOW OUTSIDE LIMITS ! TOW
Our options: Reduce weight? Add rear ballast?

76 10. Echo features Ballast in the Echo
The CoG must be shifted – this is similar to? Alpha, Bravo, & Charlie! Add sample weight to rear locker Replot ‘new TOW’ againt original TOW Weight Arm mm IU/10’000 ZFW 2300 kg 575 IU Fuel Main 97usg=261kg 1780mm 46.5 Fuel AUX 45usg=121kg 2800mm 33.9 +Rear Cargo +100kg 5000mm +50 ‘new’ TOW 2782 kg 705.4

77 10. Echo features Ballast in the Echo ‘new’ CoG within limits!
‘new’ TOW 2782kg TOW 2682kg Add 68kg to put aircraft TOW into limits

78 10. Echo features Ballast in the Echo Add 68kg to rear locker
Replot ‘new TOW’ againt original TOW Weight Arm mm IU/10’000 ZFW 2300 kg 575 IU Fuel Main 97usg=261kg 1780mm 46.5 Fuel AUX 45usg=121kg 2800mm 33.9 +Rear Cargo +68kg 5000mm +34 ‘new’ TOW 2750 kg 689.4

79 Questions?


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