Presentation on theme: "Life in the Cotton Kingdom"— Presentation transcript:
1Life in the Cotton Kingdom Antebellum SlaveryChapter 6Life in the Cotton Kingdom
2What does Antebellum mean? A period of time before a war, usually refers to the American Civil War.1820 – 1861 (start of Civil War) for reference purposes only
3Section 1: The Expansion of Slavery Invention of cotton gin by Eli Whitney in 1793Led to rapid expansion of slavery – need land!Slave population increased tremendously,Grew fastest in Alabama and Mississippi
5Slave Population, 1820–1860Map 6–2. Slavery spread southwestward from the upper South and the eastern seaboard following the spread of cotton cultivation.Source: Sam Bowers Hilliard, Atlas of Antebellum Southern Agriculture (Louisiana State University Press, 1984), pp. 29–34.
6Cotton Production in the South, 1820–1860 Map 6–1. Cotton production expanded westward between 1820 and 1860 into Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, and western Tennessee.Source: Sam Bowers Hilliard, Atlas of Antebellum Southern Agriculture (Louisiana State University Press, 1984) pp. 67–71.
7Ownership: Slaves in the Old South Slavery unevenly distributed – think about the statistics from yesterday!25% of white families owned slaves by 1860Nearly half of slaveholders owned fewer than five1% owned more than fifty slaves
9Black Slaveholders There were Black Slaveholders, because . . . They did it to protect families from sale and disruption.Not very popular. In 1830, only 2% of free blacks owned slaves.
10Section 2: Slave Labor in Agriculture Slaves in the South55% cultivated cotton (field slaves)20% grew tobacco or produced sugar, rice, hemp (field slaves)15% domestic servants10% trades and industries
11An engraving dating from about 1860, slaves harvest cotton under white supervision on a southern plantation.Source: The Granger Collection, NY
12Section 3: Other Types of Slave Labor 25% of all slaves did non-agricultural dutiesHouse slaves ~ “elite” slaves (cooks, maids, nurses, butlers, gardeners+ Less physically demanding+ Better food and clothing- Grueling to work in 19th century kitchens (Belle)- Constantly under white supervision
13Photograph by L. D. Andrew, 1936, from a vintage photograph taken ca Photograph by L.D. Andrew, 1936, from a vintage photograph taken ca Georgia)
14Domestic Slave with Planter's Family," Virginia, ca
15Section 3: Other Types of Slave Labor Skilled craftsmen ~ more “elite” than house slaves and included carpenters, blacksmiths, and millwrights+ Could travel for supplies and gave a taste of freedom+ Could be hired out (work for $$)
16Urban Slavery Were the “immigrants” of the South Jobs include: domestics, washwomen, stevedores, general laborers+ Interacted with free black community+ Had opportunities to hire out ($$)
17Young African-American Stevedore Loading Cotton onto a Steamboat at New Orleans, 1800s
18Industrial SlaveryJobs included textile mills, iron working, lumber industryMost industrialist in the South hired slaves+ Greater autonomy+ Could provide path to freedom
19Why did slavery expand in the cotton kingdom? How was the slave population distributed across the South?Why did a small number of free blacks purchase slaves?What types of crops did slaves cultivate in the South?What type of jobs/labor was performed by the slaves in the South?
20Punishment Physical (Corporal) Punishment Supported in the Bible Essential to keep the paternalistic character of slaveryKept individual slaves under controlUsed as an example to other slaves to keep controlCaused other slaves to work together and protect one another
21Louisiana Slave Displays Scars In this 1863 photograph a former Louisiana slave displays the scars that resulted from repeated whippings. Although this degree of scarring is exceptional, few slaves were able to avoid being whipped at least once in their lives.Source: National Archives and Records Administration
22The Domestic Slave Trade The Cotton Kingdom expands to the South and WestUpper South sells excess slaves to Lower South50% of Upper South slaves traded during Antebellum PeriodMany feared being “sold down river”many slaves in Chesapeake Region escaped
23A Black Father Being Sold Away from His Family This woodcut of a black father being sold away from his family appeared in The Child’s Anti-Slavery Book in Family ruptures, like the one shown, were among the more common and tragic aspects of slavery, especially in the upper South, where masters claimed slavery was “mild.”Source: Courtesy of the Library of Congress
24The Domestic Slave Trade Traders operated slave prisons or slave pensWashington DC (one of the largest and near the US Capitol)!!!Slaves were chained or roped together and then walked on foot in coffles
27A Slave CoffleBefore 1850 Washington, D.C. was a major depot in the domestic (or interstate) slave trade. This woodcut portrays a slave coffle—a group of slaves bound together—passing the Capitol Building in about 1815.Source: Courtesy of the Library of Congress
28Slave Block Where Auctioned Off, New Orleans (18)
29The Domestic Slave Trade This business was opposite of the claim that slavery was a benign institutionDescription often used by slaveholders
30Section 3 Essential Questions Why was physical punishment so widely used by slaveholders?What was the domestic slave trade?
31Section 5: The Socialization of Slaves Surviving SlaveryUsed folk tales (Brer Rabbit) to teach children how to conduct themselvesLearned to watch what they said around whitesLearned not to talk backLearned to camouflage their feelingsTurned toward religion
32Religion Helped in coping Mid-19th century most slaves Protestant Biracial Baptist and Methodist churchesRacially segregated seatingShared cemeteries and joined together in communionPlantation churches told slaves “Servants obey your masters”Preferred semi-secret black churchMoses and deliveranceEmotional
33Plantation BurialBritish artist John Antrobus completed this painting in about It is named Plantation Burial and suggests the importance of religion among enslaved African Americans.Source: John Antrobus, Plantation Burial, oil painting, The Historical New Orleans Collection
34Section 5 Essential Questions How did African Americans adapt to life under slavery?