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Ag Disposal Issues Dr Jimmy Tickel, NCDA & CS Emergency Programs.

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1 Ag Disposal Issues Dr Jimmy Tickel, NCDA & CS Emergency Programs

2 Company LOGO Source: NOAA Nat’l Climate Data Center - Livestock and Poultry in USA USDA Census of Agriculture 1997 Billion Dollar Weather Disasters

3 Company LOGO The Who: Lead and Support  Feds….  Natural Disasters: US Army Corps of Engineers  Diseases: USDA  State  Natural Disasters and Diseases-  State Vet  Support agencies…Soil and Water, NCDA&CS and NCDENR

4 Company LOGO Primary Responsibility  § 106 ‑ 403. (Effective October 1, 2005) Disposition of dead domesticated animals. the duty of the owner or person in charge of any of his domesticated animals a manner approved by the State Veterinarian  It shall be the duty of the owner or person in charge of any of his domesticated animals that die from any cause and the owner, lessee, or person in charge of any land upon which any domesticated animals die, to bury the same to a depth of at least three feet beneath the surface of the ground within 24 hours after knowledge of the death of said domesticated animals, or to otherwise dispose of the same in a manner approved by the State Veterinarian. It shall be a violation of this statute to bury any dead domesticated animal closer than 300 feet to any flowing stream or public body of water. It shall be unlawful for any person to remove the carcasses of dead domesticated animals from his premises to the premises of any other person without the written permission of the person having charge of such premises and without burying said carcasses as above provided. The governing body of each municipality shall designate some appropriate person whose duty it shall be to provide for the removal and disposal, according to the provisions of this section, of any dead domesticated animals located within the limits of the municipality when the owner or owners of said animals cannot be determined. The board of commissioners of each county shall designate some appropriate person whose duty all costs incurred by a municipality or county in the removal of a dead domesticated animal shall be recoverable from the owner of such animal upon admission of ownership or conviction. "Domesticated animal" as used herein shall include poultry.(1919, c. 36; C.S., s. 4488; 1927, c. 2; 1939, c. 360, s. 4; 1971, c. 567, ss. 1, 2; 2001 ‑ 12, s. 9; 2003 ‑ 6, s. 1.)

5 Company LOGO More Responsibilities responsibility of the owner or person in charge of his domesticated animals to bury dead animals appropriately within 24 hours after knowledge of the deaththe municipal or county government to domestic dead animals whose owner cannot be identified  North Carolina General Statute (NCGS) Disposition of dead domesticated animals states that it is the responsibility of the owner or person in charge of his domesticated animals to bury dead animals appropriately within 24 hours after knowledge of the death. It is the responsibility of the municipal or county government to designate appropriate persons to dispose of any domestic dead animals whose owner cannot be identified. (See attached copy of NCGS and companion opinion from the Attorney General's Office dated June 8, 1984.) Diseased and Dead Animals  The NC Department of Agriculture - Veterinary Division is the lead state agency to oversee animal disposal as regulated under existing Administrative Rules, specifically, Subchapter 52C - Control of Livestock Diseases: Miscellaneous Provisions, Section Diseased and Dead Animals (See Attached) that dead animals become a threat to human health, the State and Local Health Director has broad authority to investigate and act on matters to protect health.  The State Health Director and by extension the Local Health Director in each county is charged with preventing health risks and disease and promoting a safe and healthful environment according to NCGS 130A, Articles To the extent that dead animals become a threat to human health, the State and Local Health Director has broad authority to investigate and act on matters to protect health. Environmental Management Commission protects the groundwater quality  The Environmental Management Commission protects the groundwater quality in the State of North Carolina through rules established in 15A NCAC Subchapter 2L - "Classifications and Water Quality Standards Applicable to the Groundwaters of North Carolina." These rules establish groundwater quality standards that may not be exceeded without a permit issued under the authority of the Commission. The Groundwater Section of the Division of Water Quality is responsible for the administration and enforcement of these rules. Any surface or subsurface activity that has the potential to cause groundwater standards to be exceeded is subject to the regulatory authority of the Commission.

6 Company LOGO State Authority  02 NCAC 52C.0102DISPOSAL OF DEAD ANIMALS  Methods approved by the State Veterinarian for disposing of dead domesticated animals in addition to burial three feet beneath the surface of the ground are as follows:  (1)rendering at a rendering plant licensed under G.S. 106 ‑ 168.7;  (2)complete incineration;  (3)in the case of dead poultry, placing in a disposal pit as prescribed in G.S. 106 ‑ ; and  (4)any method which in the professional opinion of the State Veterinarian would make possible the salvage of part of a dead animal's value without endangering human or animal health.

7 Company LOGO Animal Disposal Summary

8 Company LOGO  Scope  While it is recognized that there are multiple types and degrees of emergencies that could create the need for dead animal burial, these guidelines focus on the most common cause and the most recent experience, flooding and electrical outages. For example, guidelines for managing dead animals during a foreign animal disease emergency may differ and would be managed through the State Veterinarian.   These guidelines are intended to address dead animal disposal during a declared emergency and therefore do not take the place of the dead animal disposal that occurs under the normal permitted operation of a farm. The Governor can declare a state of emergency in North Carolina with or without a federal declaration of the same.   Emergency Planning  Each farm operation shall make specific plans for animal disposal in the event of an emergency. When burial is determined to be the disposal method of choice, an attempt should be made first to bury the dead animals on the farm according to these guidelines. If proper burial is not possible on the farm then plans should be made for alternative sites.   Burial Guidelines  The bottom of the hole where dead animals are to be buried should be 3 feet above the seasonal high water table wherever possible and at least 12 inches above the seasonal high water table. (Farm owners may contact the local NRCS agency or the local health department for assistance in determining the seasonal high water table.)  Standing water in the hole does not preclude animal burial as long as the bottom of the hole is at least 12 inches above the seasonal high water table, not in an area of standing water, and the other conditions for proper burial are met.  There must be at least 3 feet of soil covering any buried animal. This can be interpreted to mean soil mounded over the animals above the adjacent ground level.  The burial site must be at least 300 feet from any existing stream or public body of water.  The burial site must be at least 300 feet from any existing public water supply well.  The burial site must be at least 100 feet from any other type of existing well.  The burial site cannot include any portion of a waste lagoon or lagoon wall.  In the case where the burial site is in a waste disposal spray field, the burial site is not available for subsequent waste spraying until a new viable crop is established on the site.  The burial site shall be located so as to minimize the effect of stormwater runoff.  Burial is not permitted in the tiled area of an underdrained field.  A record of the location of the approved site (GPS latitude and longitude coordinates if available), the burial history of each burial site to include the date, species, head count and age must be kept by the owner and reported to the Local Health Director who will in turn report this information to the appropriate State agency - DENR Division of Water Quality, Groundwater Section.  Farm owners and operators are encouraged to consider measures that could be taken prior to an imminent emergency that could reduce the impact on the farm and the environment.  Collective Burial Site  A collective burial site may be designated to serve one or more counties in the event of a large-scale emergency whereby individual farm sites are not available. The responsibility for disposal of dead animals remains with the owner, lessee, or person in charge of any land upon which any domesticated animals die. The county or municipality should identify an appropriate burial site(s) with the capacity to bury up to 5% of the steady state live weight of livestock in that jurisdiction. The use of an existing county or municipal landfill as a dead animal burial site is legal and preferred.   Burial Site Location  Best farm practices suggest that burial sites with the capacity to handle the type and number of animals most likely to be needed during an emergency for each farm operation be identified prior to the emergency. It is recommended that the emergency burial plan be incorporated into the farm's existing conservation plan. Emergency Burial Guides Emergency Burial Guidelines The bottom of the hole where dead animals are to be buried should be 3 feet above the seasonal high water table wherever possible and at least 12 inches above the seasonal high water table. (Farm owners may contact the local NRCS agency or the local health department for assistance in determining the seasonal high water table.) Standing water in the hole does not preclude animal burial as long as the bottom of the hole is at least 12 inches above the seasonal high water table, not in an area of standing water, and the other conditions for proper burial are met. There must be at least 3 feet of soil covering any buried animal. This can be interpreted to mean soil mounded over the animals above the adjacent ground level. The burial site must be at least 300 feet from any existing stream or public body of water. The burial site must be at least 300 feet from any existing public water supply well. The burial site must be at least 100 feet from any other type of existing well. The burial site cannot include any portion of a waste lagoon or lagoon wall. In the case where the burial site is in a waste disposal spray field, the burial site is not available for subsequent waste spraying until a new viable crop is established on the site. The burial site shall be located so as to minimize the effect of stormwater runoff. Burial is not permitted in the tiled area of an underdrained field. A record of the location of the approved site (GPS latitude and longitude coordinates if available), the burial history of each burial site to include the date, species, head count and age must be kept by the owner and reported to the Local Health Director who will in turn report this information to the appropriate State agency - DENR Division of Water Quality, Groundwater Section.

9 Company LOGO

10 Company LOGO Natural Disasters- Recovery  Reality vs. perception:  Community not recovered until carcasses dealt with  Large numbers may present or be perceived to present a health hazard  Ex. Large number of carcasses adjacent to apartment complex/school playground  Regardless, carcasses need to be prioritized for disposal above storm debris etc as the public will perceive it to be an important recovery action

11 Company LOGO Natural disaster solutions Number of options are available  Burial-  obvious challenges in flooding events  generally most available in disaster situation  Composting  Most likely to be used for poultry  Requires carbon source (litter etc)  Rendering  Great option but time sensitive (esp. in summer)  Landfills  Used in past /requires transport

12 Company LOGO Natural disaster considerations  Corporate Industry will attempt to solve their own  Independent farmers may be limited in ability to recover  Companion- consider recovery for identification on behalf owner  Wildlife not usually a problem

13  Meade County approves disaster allocation  Meade County commissioners have approved spending up to $100,000 from the county's emergency snow fund to help dispose of livestock killed in the Oct 4-5 snowstorm, and an additional $35,000 to pay the county's Firewise staff to assist with debris removal from the storm.  In addition, the board voted during a special meeting Oct. 10 to employ the civil air patrol to locate dead livestock to aid in the removal of carcasses.  Meade County is currently negotiating with contractors to assist with removing livestock carcasses from Meade County right-of- ways as well as the construction of mass burial pits for carcass disposal.  The county is also seeking potential landowners who are willing to allow construction of mass burial pits where the county may dispose of carcasses collected in county right-of-ways, as well as any landowners who are willing to allow fellow Meade County producers to dispose of their carcasses at these mass burial locations.  The county will not remove any carcasses from county right-of-ways without first identifying the livestock owner and verifying that the owner has made third-party verification to document the losses.  Commissioners emphasized that the financial assistance offered by the county will be paid to contracted services to assist with the debris and carcass disposal objectives.  Commissioners discussed a variety of options for carcass removal and burial, including the possibility of utilizing 640 acres of county-owned property on Highway 34 that was going to be sold at public auction Oct. 15. Due to the storm and catastrophic loss of livestock, however, commissioners have opted to postpone the sale indefinitely.  Commissioners discussed the need to build a road onto the property if the site was used, and the likelihood that the road would be unusable until the ground dries out.  County Commission Assistant Jerry Derr pointed out that the reality of the situation is that much of the carcass removal likely would occur on private land and would not qualify for Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) reimbursement, so the county had to decide whether to proceed with its offer to help.  Commissioner Galen Niederwerder said due to the enormity of the losses, the county would likely have to deploy a number of ideas to get the carcasses removed, whether it was reimbursable or not.  Representatives from the South Dakota Office of Emergency Management urged the commissioners to proceed with whatever means of disposal and assistance they could, and to document all costs related to the storm.  "Unfortunately, because of the federal government shutdown there's nobody to talk to about what's reimbursable and what's not," said Jason Forrest. "The best we can say is to do what you deem is best, and keep documentation of why you needed to do it. We will go to bat with FEMA whenever they come back to work, that this was our best option."  Derr voiced his frustration with the bureaucracy the county has already encountered in getting state assistance.  He said he spoke with an individual at the state Department of Environment and Natural Resources for assistance in getting a public health declaration signed to speed up livestock carcass removal, and was promised a declaration would be out by the end of the day.  "But them making that declaration does not equate to state dollars trickling down to the county level," said Derr.  He added that the directive he has received from the state from the onset of the disaster has been to "please contact your local emergency manager."  Meade County livestock producers in need of assistance related to livestock carcass burial or debris removal related to the storm are asked to contact the Meade County Commission Office at (605)

14 Company LOGO Disease outbreaks  May have a regulatory component other than just disposal regs  Biosecurity concerns (prevent spread of disease)  May have a choice in how many (euthanasia) carcasses you have vs. natural disasters  Political vs. science type of conflicts  Burial, composting, landfills, rendering are all most likely options depending on disease

15 Company LOGO On-site Burial may N OT Be A Realistic Early FMD Disposal Option On-site Burial may N OT Be A Realistic Early FMD Disposal Option

16 Company LOGO Disease Disposal Capacity  Disposal capacity can be overwhelmed due to #’s  ~800,000 hd of cattle  ~27,000 hd of sheep  ~80,000 hd of goats  ~9m hd of swine  ~Broilers - 799,700,000 hd  ~ Chickens (layers) - 12,480,000 hd  ~Turkeys- 36,000,000 head

17 Company LOGO Which Disposal Technique is Best?  State Vet Decision  Agent  Species affected  Zoonotic  Location of Other Premises  Weather  Number of Animals  Environmental Conditions (i.e.. Water Table)  Capacity, Availability, Cost, est..  Time

18 Company LOGO Transporting Diseased Carcasses Workshop April 9-10, 2013 Des Moines, Iowa DHS/USDA joint project to explore the use of Off-production site disposal options: Rendering and Landfill NCDA & CS & West Texas A& M

19 Company LOGO Overarching Goal Utilize efforts from this workshop group to explore the possibility of developing transportation protocols (or the guidance for) to dispose of infected carcasses at rendering plants and landfills, should the need arise during an outbreak.

20 Company LOGO Standardized Protocol We want to develop a standard protocol that could potentially be used as a national guideline, and possibly (adopted) utilized by individual states to develop regional or state protocols. The following questions can be used to help stimulate discussion and development of standard protocols. The developed model would then be provided to USDA as a best practices model.

21 Company LOGO Topics to Consider Transportation Issues o Classification o Biosecurity o Permitting Non-infected Animals Infected Carcasses o Routing Conveyance Type o C&D (clean/disinfect) Conveyances Disposal Facilities Workers

22 Company LOGO Topics to Share Disposal Issues o Rendering Facilities Facility Type (species) Capacities C&D Business Continuity o Landfills o Capacities o Location o C&D o Business Continuity

23 Company LOGO FARM Rendering C & D Type of vehicle Biosecurity Identification Routing Security Communications Accident protocol Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Stage 5 Permit & Bill of Lading

24 Company LOGO Transporting: 5 stage process 1. Load vehicle with infected carcasses (sealed) 2. Proceed to C&D, receive movement permit (one way ticket) 3. Transport carcasses 4. Offload carcasses at disposal site 5. Proceed to C&D, receive movement permit to return 6. $$$$ (brought up during a webinar)

25 Company LOGO Best Practices to Reduce Risks o Transport specifications  Containers: (Infectious Subst 6.2)  Leak-proof containers  Sealed (restricted air flow  “protected” o What conveyances are available?  Capacity  Mobility/Suitability to task  Labeling  Operations “friendly” o

26 Company LOGO Examples of containers Vent 21.5 cubic yard container

27 Company LOGO FARM C & D Stage 1 Stage 2 Permi t & Bill of Lading Spray carcasses Grinding Treatment Storage Temp. composting Cold storage Additional or Secondary Treatments

28 Company LOGO  Rendering;  Timeline of operations is critical Timing of Operations Farm Transport Render Load C&D Permit UnLoad C&D Disposal will have to be tied to Depop such that there is no “lag” time…

29 Company LOGO Permitting?  Allowance/permission Process to allow movement  Compliance Process to enforce proper movement  Use something already in existence? Examples:  USDA 1-27  MSP Live movement documents  Hazmat permit guides- ex. documentation for 6.2 Permitting

30 Company LOGO Modified version using MSP Live Shipments --lbs/number of carcasses --zones Signature of destination rep

31 Company LOGO Disposal Calculator Disposal Capacity Calculator February, 2013 Species and Total Count Average Weight (lbs) Percent to be Culled Disposal Amount Swine 16010% PoundsTons 147,200,00073,600 9,200,000 Enter animal population count in gray box Landfill Options (Operating Units: Tons) # Landfills Current Capacity (all landfills) Per Day Average Capacity (per landfill) Per Day Number of Days for disposal: Current Capacity 1/4 Rule Capacity Per Day Using all selected landfills Number of Days for disposal: 1/4 Rule Additional capacity* required per day - beyond 1/4 Rule Capacity** 4020, ,672 *Additional capacity required to dispose of material within 30 days. **1/4 Rule Capacity equals capacity of number of landfills selected mutliplied by Rendering Options (Operating Units: Pounds) # Rendering Facilities Current Capacity Per Week Average Capacity Per Week Number of Weeks for disposal: Current Capacity Number of Rendering Facilities required to dispose of material in 4 weeks (using average capacity) Additional capacity*** required per week - beyond current capacity**** 663,950,00010,658, ,150,000 ***To dispose of material within 4 weeks. ****Current Capacity equals number of rendering facilities selected Conveyance Options - # Truck Loads Conveyance Type Capacity (cubic yards) approximate weight per cubic yard of material # Truck Loads required to dispose of material # Trucks/Conveyances Available Total # of Trips (per truck) 30' Dump Trailer , Legend: No additional capacity required Additional capacity required Options available for selection

32 Company LOGO

33 Company LOGO Disposal

34 Company LOGO

35 Company LOGO Animal Disposal Summary

36 Company LOGO Rendering Advantages - An existing disposal technology with an existing infrastructure. -Large process capacity, existing transportation and decontamination program, a fairly clear understanding of disease pathogen destruction capability - Greater than 65% material volume reduction -Potential for marketable byproduct Disadvantages Fixed Facility with Finite capacity: affected by daily mortality Some facilities are restricted by material type Certain pathogens may restrict its return to normal operation or marketability of its products a rendering facility is restricted by its waste water discharge permit and possibly solid waste disposal capacities; and construction of new rendering facilities requires years

37 Company LOGO Burial  Simple, readily available, economical  Problems  Land fills create dry entombment  Weather and water table prevent burial  On ag land may delay return to production  Affect Real Estate Value  Just Moves problem out of site

38 Company LOGO Composting “Above ground burial in a bio-mass filter with pathogens killed by high Temperature.” Advantages: -on site or off, simple, economical, can effectively destroy some disease pathogens, can be mechanized, and can produce a usable byproduct. Disadvantage requires significant time (normally 3 to 6 months); significant property commitment; relatively labor intensive mechanized, moderate upfront financial investment; may delay the return of the facility to normal production

39 Company LOGO  Fully containable mobile unit  64,000 lbs / hour…$275K  100,000 lbs/hour…$360K Mobile Grinder/Pump

40 Company LOGO On-Farm Storage/Preservation Organic Acid Stabilization  Based on the same principles as pickle production  Grind Carcass (  1 cm particle size)  Literature cites successful* preservation with ground material is mixed with a minimum of: 2% formic acid 10% acetic acid 4.8% lactic acid 3.8% propionic acid  Essentially need to get material to a pH < pK a of the acid utilized  Composition of preserved material would again be similar to that of original material. *Definition of “successful” varied among authors

41 Company LOGO $50 per bag $900 per bag Assumptions million lbs / farm - 45,000 lbs / container - 30 containers / farm Need larger Container 20,000 liters 6,350 gallons 45,000 lbs / bag

42 Company LOGO Gasification  Environmentally Friendly  High Temperatures  Little Waste  DOD Project  Funded but not started  2 years from June 06  25 ton / day  Dev. Cost $ million  Includes Grinder  Future production rate at 52 per year

43 Company LOGO 1. Your Depopulation and Disposal choices will not be popular. choices will not be popular. 2. Find what works best for most cases and focus on those methods cases and focus on those methods 3. No Decision is a recipe for failure Summary


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