Entities identified for the Anthropology extension Although many of the elements related to anthropological specimens can be mapped into the ABCD and EFG schemas, there are elements specific to the domain and others that overlap with archaeology, art and social history. For the HHI schema, it was decided to add only subsets of these further domains and some extensions to existing element groups such as taphonomy and dating methods.
HHI - Human History Information 1.Proposed Schema with working name HHI.XSD: Human History Information -> ABCDEFGHHI 2.Developed under the SYNTHESYS Project in collaboration with NHM, London & Budapest NHM 3.The Schema is intended to be used in conjunction with ABCD. It adds new elements and extends some others. 4.First draft by Charles Copp, now available for testing and comment 5.Covers Physical Anthropology but also includes elements to describe cultural artefacts, burials and excavation sites. It is not a comprehensive archaeological schema.
Global Elements 1: anthropologyUnit The anthropologyUnit, used in conjunction with the ABCD and EFG schemas, provides elements for describing human and humanoid physical remains together with details of pathology, taphonomy, socio-culteral determinations and biographical details. Anthropology specimens may have a great variety of dating methods some of which, e.g. dendrochonology and cultural/historical dates have had to be added.
anthropologyUnit 1.1 - socioCultural elements Some anthropological specimens can be linked to known ethnic origins, cultures, races or even families. It may also be possible to establish the social status of the person in life e.g. through associated grave goods or inscriptions.
anthropologyUnit 1.2 - Biographical elements Some remains are of identifiabale people or details of lives may be recorded on coffins, tombs or associated documents and inscriptions.
anthropologyUnit 1.3 - Pathology elements Many anthropological specimens show signs of pathological change or damage resulting from genetic conditions, hormonal and nutritional problems, disease, surgery, warfare and ritual mutilation. Some post mortem changes also resemble pathological conditions.
anthropologyUnit 1.4 - Archaeological Taphonomy Taphonomy is concerned with how things are preserved and what has happened to their remains. Much of this is covered in EFG for fossil remains but anthropological remains also have taphonomic data associated with burial and similar rituals.
anthropologyUnit 1.4.1 - Burial In HHI, The Burial element is concerned with the physical remains of the deceased and how they have been prepared for burial and whether they are buried singly or in multiple interrements. Burial is associated with the anthropologyUnit whereas details of the grave (e.g. the pit or tomb) are regarded as part of the archaeological provenance of the specimen.
Global Elements 2: archaeological Provenance Achaeological provenance extends the Gathering element to providea place for extra details associated with collection from excavation sites. The element is not fully modelled but has the basic categories of information likely to be associated with anthropological specimens
archaeological Provenance 2.1 - Archaeological metadata Archaeological metadata is placed as an extension of the Gathering element to allow the recording of details relating to the excavation event and its organisation. Geographic context allows for the expression of the political or cultural geographic context of the site (possibly historical) rather than just place names.
archaeological Provenance 2.2 - archaeological feature Archaeological features are normally immovable components of a site including walls, ditches, earth mounds and graves. Features may include many individual contexts.
archaeological Provenance 2.2.1 - grave Graves are archaeological features. Most are excavations for the deposition of burials. They occur in many shapes, sizes and orientations, which may have cultural or religious significance
archaeological Provenance 2.3 - archaeological context An archaeological context is a single identifiablesubdivision of an excavation e.g. the infill of a ditch or coffin, a hearth layer or pavement surface.
archaeologicalProvenance 2.2.1 & 2.3.1- associated Artefacts The data supplier might treat artefacts either as separate specimens or as simple lists associated with the anthropological specimen. Lists can be associated with a general archaeological feature or a single context.
Global elements 3: culturalArtefactUnit Called culturalArtefact to distinguish from natural artefacts. It covers essentally any human/humanoid-made objects or modified objects. Objects may be simple or made of many parts each with their own descriptions, materials, identifications etc.
Typological Determination Every domain has its own naming conventions and controlled terminologies, although they overlap in any details. Archaeologists and anthropologists use a mixture of common classifications and other more local typologies, which may even be constructed at the location level.
Historical Dating Methods There are many methods and schemes for dating objects and events. Some, such as Carbon isotope dates are covered in the EFG schema but others including denrochronology and schemes based on various calendars, historical periods and dynasties had to be developed for HHI