Presentation on theme: "History & Archaeology. Both historians and archaeologists study the past. For centuries historians have used written records as their main source of information."— Presentation transcript:
History & Archaeology
Both historians and archaeologists study the past. For centuries historians have used written records as their main source of information about historical events, people and groups. This reliance on written evidence has limited what historians can learn about the past. This is where archaeology comes in – studying the material remains of the past to learn about how people lived. Thereby helping to fill the ‘gaps’ left by only studying written records. History & Archaeology
Role of the Historian What do historians do? Study written evidence to investigate the past.
Role of the Archaeologists What do archaeologists do? Study the human past through physical remains called artefacts. Artefacts are objects made, used or modified by humans.
What is Archaeology? The word ‘archaeology’ is ancient Greek in origin. Its simple meaning is the study of everything ancient. Today, archaeology is a systematic and scientific approach to collecting, classifying and interpreting physical remains. Archaeologists examine objects from left behind from a society.
What is Archaeology? These objects often relate to everyday life – particularly unimportant details of life that are not recorded in written records. We can learn more about what life was like for the average person in a society from archaeological evidence than from written records, which are usually concerned with the wealthy and important people of a society. Archaeology is critical for gaining an understanding of people who did not leave written records behind.
Historians and Archaeologists In piecing together evidence about an ancient event or personality, the work of BOTH the historian and the archaeologist contribute to a more complete study. Archaeology and history are complimentary. For example, a historian would be interested in reading ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs on a papyrus, the archaeologist would be interested in what material it was made from, the process used to manufacture the papyrus and the way in which the paint was developed.
Sources and Evidence History and archaeology are really about asking questions, not just finding answers. Historians and archaeologists must look at sources and ask questions to find the evidence they are looking for. A source is anything that has survived from the past. It can be written or an archaeological artefact. A source should not be confused with evidence. Evidence is the information that comes from a source – it tends to prove or disprove a conclusion – to establish a point. A source becomes evidence once an historian or archaeologist has used it.
Some important terms… Find the definition for the following words, then define it in your OWN words. Archaeologist Historian Classifying Artefact Interpreting Source Evidence
Case Study The Tomb of King Tutankhamun If we look at one of the most spectacular finds in the history of archaeology, the discovery of the tomb of King Tutankhamun in ancient Egypt, we can see how historians and archaeologists work to piece together the evidence. The following is a list of evidence of the tomb of Tutankhamun.
Case Study The Tomb of King Tutankhamun Write down which evidence would be studied by an historian and which would be studied by an archaeologist. Stelas (ancient stone with inscription) The sarcophagus (ancient coffin) Tomb burial goods Wall paintings Statues Temples Official documents Inscriptions on statues Temple inscriptions Writings on burial goods Mummified body Tomb inscriptions
Looking at Sources Look at this list of familiar objects: Opera House A tombstone Toilet seat $2 coin BBQ tongs Parramatta Eels football jersey Imagine that you have never seen these objects before, and have uncovered them sometime in the future.
Looking at Sources For each object: Describe the object What is it made of? What is its purpose? Is it archaeological evidence or a written source or both? What can it tell you about the people who made and used it? Is the object most helpful in finding out about: daily life culture & beliefs social and political life?
The Work of the Historian What is an Historian? Someone who studies the past using written evidence The Skills of the Historian Historians search for evidence in many places: gravestones, inscriptions on buildings, coins, letters etc. These are sources of evidence as they provide basic information for the historian. An historian: asks questions researches the past evaluates sources and makes judgments based on them analyses and interprets evidence draw conclusions communicates and explains the past emphasises with people from the past tries to gain and understanding of the past
Study the broken gravestone… For 39 years married to one husband…left three surviving children by him, a son who has held the highest municipal posts through the favour of Augustus Caesar, another who in the army of the same Caesar Augustus has held the highest posts of the equestrian rank and is now marked out for a higher rank, and a most virtuous daughter married to a most upright man and through her, two grandchildren... 1.What is the source? What is the evidence? 2.What can we learn about the owner of the gravestone from this source? 3.What basic information about her is missing? 4.What other sources may be useful to help us find the missing information? Broken Roman Grave stone inscription from Corfinium, Italy
The Work of the Archaeologist Archaeology is a multi-faced discipline. Much like doctors, archaeologists tend to ‘specialise’ in one area of expertise. Find the Definition for the Following: Pre-historians Egyptologists Classical Archaeologists Near-Eastern Archaeologists Historical Archaeologists Industrial Archaeologists Marine Archaeologists
The Work of the Archaeologist Archaeology is a multi-faced discipline. Much like doctors, archaeologists tend to ‘specialise’ in one area of expertise. Pre-historians The term prehistory has been used to describe the periods from early human life to the beginning of written history. Pre-historians therefore study the time of humans before the introduction of writing. Egyptologists Study the culture of ancient Egypt. They could be archaeologists mostly concerned with material remains or historians concerned with the written evidence of Egypt. Classical Archaeologists Study the written and archaeological remains of ancient Greece and Rome.
The Work of the Archaeologist Near-Eastern Archaeologists Study the area of the world including Persia, Mesopotamia (modern day Iraq). Historical Archaeologists Study more recent sites with the aid of written records. In Australia, this would include the study of early colonial sites. Industrial Archaeologists Study sites, buildings and associated objects built and manufactured over the last 300 years. Marine Archaeologists Study submerged buildings, shipwrecks, sea and lakebeds with the help of complex scientific machinery and techniques.
The Skills of the Archaeologist An Archaeologist: investigates the past identifies material evidence asks questions of sources collects evidence and observes classifies evidence, placing it in its correct context of time and place interprets evidence and draws conclusions evaluates material evidence and makes judgements about it communicates and explains theories about the past
Study the artefacts… Write down the following questions: 1. What is it? 2. What is it made from? 3. Where did it come from? 4. What is it’s function? 5. What does it tell us about the society?