Presentation on theme: "Geosphere 3 rd Period. Geosphere Compositional Layers Crust-thin outer layer; makes up less than 1% of earth’s mass Mantle-middle layer; composes."— Presentation transcript:
Geosphere Compositional Layers Crust-thin outer layer; makes up less than 1% of earth’s mass Mantle-middle layer; composes approximately 64% of earth’s mass Core-dense inner layer Brittany Gardner
Geosphere-Physical Layers Lithosphere-composed of crust and upper mantle; divided into tectonic plates Asthenosphere-solid layer composed of slow moving mantle rock Mesosphere-lower mantle Outer Core-composed of liquid iron and nickel Inner Core-composed of same material as outer core but solid due to pressure, approximately 4,000-5,000 degrees Celsius Brittany Gardner
The Geosphere (Asthenosphere) The asthenopshere is the layer beneath lithosphere. It is a plastic, solid layer of the mantle made of rock that flows very slowly and allows tectonic plates to move on top of it Trevor Stump
Tectonic Plates Tectonic plates are large continental plates that glide across the underlying asthenosphere in much the same way as a chunk of ice drifts across a pond. Some of the major tectonic plates include the pacific, North American, South American, African, Eurasian and Antarctic. Trevor Stump
Tectonic Plates (continued) The plate move away and collide with each other which causes mountain ranges and deep ocean abysses to form. Trevor Stump
What Causes Earthquakes? Tyler Mann A fault causes earthquakes which are breaks in the Earths crust. A fault causes earthquakes which are breaks in the Earths crust.
Four ways an Earthquake fault can occur Normal- Which is one side of the fault line moves down and the other plate moves up. Normal- Which is one side of the fault line moves down and the other plate moves up. Reverse- Is when one side of the fault line moves up and the other moves down. Reverse- Is when one side of the fault line moves up and the other moves down. Oblique- Which is when the fault line moves horizontal and up and down. Oblique- Which is when the fault line moves horizontal and up and down. Strike Slip- Is a movement which fault line can make a left lateral earthquake and a right lateral earthquake Strike Slip- Is a movement which fault line can make a left lateral earthquake and a right lateral earthquake
Effect an earthquake has on land Two of the most common effects an earthquake has on land are. Two of the most common effects an earthquake has on land are. Tsunami’s Tsunami’s Fire Fire
Effects earthquakes have on life. Tsunami’s can have a huge effect on life because they can make 100 ft. tall waves that can flood peoples houses. Tsunami’s can have a huge effect on life because they can make 100 ft. tall waves that can flood peoples houses. Fire can kill lots of people because of gas that has leaked because of the earthquake. Fire can kill lots of people because of gas that has leaked because of the earthquake.
Seismic Waves Waves of energy that travel through the earth caused by sudden breaking of rock within the earth or an explosion. It is energy that travels the earth and is recorded on seismographs.
There are three different seismic waves- each traveling at a different speed. Surface waves- travel along surface of the earth P (primary) & S (secondary) waves- travel inside the earth
Geosphere 6: Describe the effects that a larger-scale volcanic eruption can have on the global climate. Jamie Worrell
Volcanic Eruptions: LLarge-scale volcanic eruptions can strongly influence the Earth’s climate. VVolcanic Eruptions emit large amounts of sulfur dioxide gas into the air, causing a negative reaction in the Stratosphere. TThis reaction causes a haze to appear on the Stratosphere, this haze will reflect sunlight. Jamie Worrell
Continued: If a large scale eruption were to occur, the haze would be significantly larger. This would result in more reflected sunlight and in turn will cause global temperatures to decrease. Jamie Worrell Sources: AArms, Karen. Holt Environmental Science. Austin: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2008. HHttp://www.global-greenhouse- warming.com/images/volcano_diagram.jpg HHttp://www.wiredprodigy.com/disasters.html HHttp://www.norcalblogs.com/watts/images/gcmE1.gif
volcanic eruptions. They erupt near the tectonic plate boundaries. The volcano erupts when the pressure of the magma inside blows open the solid surface of the volcano. The eruptions can cause human loss.
Earthquake eruptions. No one knows when earthquakes are going to occur. But information can tell you where it will occur so people can be prepared.
“A process in which the material’s of Earth’s surface are loosened, dissolved, or worn away and are transported from one place to another by a natural agent, such as wind, water, ice, or gravity.” http://www.dartmoor-npa.gov.uk/print/lab- erosion2.gif http://teamcarterlces.com/images/erosion2.jpg Jaclyn Lahodny
Wind Erosion In places where plants grow the roots hold the soil in place. In places where there are no plants wind can blow soil away. When the wind blows the loose soil away it leaves big rock structures. http://imagecache5.art.com/p/LRG/27/2707/ RR1ND00Z/melissa-farlow-a-rock-formation- shaped-by-wind-erosion-overlooks-the-grand- canyon.jpg http://www.uwsp.edu /gEo/faculty/ritter/ geog101/textbook/i mages/lithosphere/eo lian/rock_wind_abra sion_p0772932441 _NRCS.jpg Jaclyn Lahodny
Water Erosion. The flow of river water picks up loose soil and washes away this makes the river get wider over time. “over time, rivers can carve deep gorges into the landscape. Ocean water can erode beaches especially during storms, washing the sand dunes away. http://www.gemmadickens.com/uploads/2445d0b91388028239964 068.jpg Jaclyn Lahodny