Activity Instructions 1. Make marks 1 cm apart up the side of the box starting at the bottom using the marking pencil. 2. Label the elevations 0 cm, 1 cm, 2 cm, etc. 3. Carefully fill the container to the 1 cm line with water. 4. Use the marking pencil to draw a line on the plastic model following points of contact with the water exactly. 5. Fill the box to the 2 cm line and repeat step #4. Continue to do this until the model is completely submerged. 6. Put the clear lid on top of the container and carefully trace the lines from the model on to the lid labeling each line with its elevation (0 cm, 1 cm, 2 cm, etc.).
Analysis Questions Copy the questions on your paper and answer them. 1. Describe the general shape of the contour lines. 2. What general statement can be made about the closeness of the contour lines and the steepness of the slope? 3. Where is the volcano the steepest? 4. Create a line model similar to what is on the lid and label the steep and non-steep areas.
Studying the Sea Floor Sonar Mapping Activity (complete first few locations as a class) Harry Hess Reading/ Discussion SS Sapona Shipwreck
The 17 positions on the map shown here give the length of time that a sonar pulse took to travel to the ocean floor and back to the sonar array onboard your boat. Use the formula discussed in the article to determine the depth at each location. Transfer the data to the Ocean floor worksheet to create an ocean floor profile.
Harry Hess Reading Questions 1. What is echolocation and why did organisms evolve to use echolocation? 2. Why was Wegner’s idea about Continental Drift rejected by the scientific community? 3. What did Harry Hess find in the Pacific Ocean? 4. What happens at a mid-ocean ridge? 5. Harry Hess’s discovery led to a new theory that supported continental drift. What is the name of this theory?
Hess’s Next Discovery The idea of continental drift had been developed by Alfred Wegner, but Wegner could not explain WHY the continents move. Hess’s discovery of the vast underwater mountain ranges called mid-ocean ridges were fundamental to explaining the mechanism by which the continents “drifted” Hess used sonar to discover the under-water mountain ranges, which extend for over 80,000 km under Earth’s oceans
Geologic puzzles solved by Hess If the oceans have existed for at least 4 billion years, why has so little sediment accumulated on the ocean floor? Why are the rocks of the ocean floor significantly younger than rocks found on continents? Why are fossils found in ocean sediments no more than 180 million years old? How do the continents move?
Journey to the Ridge Activity In this activity we will be aboard a ship traveling from the East Coast of the United States to the country of Morocco in Africa. As we go we will be collecting rock samples and using radiometric dating to determine the age of the rocks We will then graph our data as a function of distance from the East Coast of the U.S.
Mid-Ocean Ridges Undersea mountain chain In 1968, the Glomar Challenger took rock samples and discovered that the rock samples got older as they moved away from the MOR What does this mean? Continents = ~3.8 byo Ocean = ~190 myo
Sea Floor Spreading Harry Hess (1960) – proposed idea of sea-floor spreading The process by which new oceanic crust forms along a mid- ocean ridge and older oceanic crust moves away from the ridge Molten rock from inside Earth rises through cracks in ridges, cools, and forms new oceanic crust This process occurs over and over again, with new crust being created along the mid-ocean ridge and the older crust being pushed away from the mid-ocean ridge
Moving Continents Continents move as the seafloor spreads along a mid- ocean ridge Continents do not move THROUGH the solid mantle of the seafloor
Ocean Trenches The sea floor has been spreading for millions of years, but it is not getting bigger… WHY? Ocean Trenches Huge, deep canyons in the seafloor At an ocean trench, dense oceanic crust is sinking into the mantle Older crust is destroyed/ recycled (by melting) at ocean trenches
Paleomagnetism As magma cools to form rock, iron-rich minerals align with Earth’s magnetic field. Like a compass
Magnetic Reversals North was not always North Scientists have found that the magnetic field of the Earth has flipped or reversed many times Normal Polarity vs. Reversed Polarity When these rocks are placed in chronological order, we see alternating bands on either side of the mid-ocean ridge.
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