Presentation on theme: "Isostatic Equilibrium Lab"— Presentation transcript:
1Isostatic Equilibrium Lab Why does the Earth have high places (the continents) and low places (the ocean basins)?What controls the elevation of mountains, lowlands, and various regions of the ocean floor?Adopted from a presentation by Ray Rector
2Density CalculationThe density of a substance is a measure of how much mass is present in a given unit of volume. DENSITY = MASS / VOLUMEExample: density of liquid water =8.33 lb/gal = 64 lb/ft3 = 1.0 gm/cm32) We will measure all masses in grams and volumes in cubic centimeters (cm3), so all of our densities will be in grams per cubic centimeter (gm/cm3).2
3Density Calculation Measuring mass is easy; we use a gram scale. We’ll use two methods to measure volume:Linear dimensions (for objects that are rectilinear):Volume (cm3) = length (cm) x width (cm) x height (cm)2) Water displacement (for objects that have an irregular shape)3
4Density CalculationAn object’s volume will displace an equal volume of water in a graduated cylinder.4
5Density Calculation An object’s density is a function of: Open spaces insideChemical composition (atomic weight of the elements that make up the substance)Atomic weight = the number of protons plus neutrons in an elementExample:wood is mostly carbon (C): atomic weight = 12a fishing weight is mostly lead (Pb): atomic weight = 2075
6Isostatic Equilibrium Lab Why does the Earth have high places (the continents) and low places (the ocean basins)?What controls the elevation of mountains, lowlands, and various regions of the ocean floor?Answer: parts of the crust vary in thickness & density.Adopted from a presentation by Ray Rector
7Earth’s Layered Structure CoreMantleOceanic crustContinental crustLithosphere: the crust (either oceanic or continental) plus the uppermost part of the mantle; forms a layer of cool, rigid rock that is broken up into moving plates.Crust
8Earth’s Layered Structure The lithosphere is broken up into plates that move horizontally across the Earth.
9Earth’s Layered Structure Today’s lab is not about horizontal movements of the Earth’s plates, but rather about vertical movements and vertical elevations of the Earth’s crust.
11Two Main Types of CrustContinental CrustOceanic Crust
12The Concept of Isostasy Isostasy is the principle of buoyancy applied to the Earth’s crust.Isostasy: a state of gravitational equilibrium in which an area of crust “floats” in a balanced way on the denser rock of the mantle below.The elevation of any part of the Earth’s crust is a function of the THICKNESS and DENSITY of the crust.
13The Concept of Isostasy These figures show how either thickness differences or density differences determine how high the wood blocks will float.
14Isostasy and Isostatic Equilibrium The top of the wood will ride higher if:The wood block is thickerThe wood block is less dense