Faults Fractures in rock Normal Faults Reverse fault –Thrust fault- low angle reverse fault Strike-Slip fault –Left-lateral vs. right-lateral
Introduction Mountain Major mountain belts Mountain range
Characteristics of Major Mountain Belts Size and Alignment Along continental margin Long, arcuate chains Ages of Mountain Belts and Continents –Youngest tend to be higher –Himalayas vs Appalachians –Craton- Oldest Continental Crust Precambrian Shield
Characteristics of Major Mountain Belts Patterns of Flooding and Faulting –Fold and Thrust Belts Crustal Shortening Crustal Thickening Metamorphism and Plutonism Normal Faulting
Evolution of a Mountain Belt Accumulation Stage of Sediments –Accumulation in an Opening Ocean Basin –Accumulation along a Convergent Boundary Graywackes Magmatic Arc Mountain Building Event- Orogeny
Evolution of a Mountain Belt The Uplift and Block-faulting Stage –Isostacy Isostatic Adjustment –Normal Faulting Fault-block Mountain Range
The Growth of Continents Crust added by accumulation & igneous activity Suspect and Exotic Terranes –Suspect terrane –Accreted terrane Exotic terrane
The Wilson cycle (named after J. Tuzo Wilson, one of the fathers of plate tectonics) refers to the cycle of ocean basin formation by rifting and seafloor spreading followed by ocean basin destruction and mountain building by subduction.