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Crustal Deformation and Mountain Building. Behavior of rocks to stress & strain Elastic –Elastic limit Plastic Brittle Stress Strain.

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Presentation on theme: "Crustal Deformation and Mountain Building. Behavior of rocks to stress & strain Elastic –Elastic limit Plastic Brittle Stress Strain."— Presentation transcript:

1 Crustal Deformation and Mountain Building

2 Behavior of rocks to stress & strain Elastic –Elastic limit Plastic Brittle Stress Strain

3 FOLDS Anticline vs. syncline –Hinge line (axis) –Limb –Axial plane Plunging fold Structural dome Structural basin

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11 FOLDS Interpreting folds –Open fold –Isoclinal fold –Overturned fold –Recumbent fold

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16 Faults Fractures in rock Normal Faults Reverse fault –Thrust fault- low angle reverse fault Strike-Slip fault –Left-lateral vs. right-lateral

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28 Introduction Mountain Major mountain belts Mountain range

29 Characteristics of Major Mountain Belts Size and Alignment Along continental margin Long, arcuate chains Ages of Mountain Belts and Continents –Youngest tend to be higher –Himalayas vs Appalachians –Craton- Oldest Continental Crust Precambrian Shield

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33 Characteristics of Major Mountain Belts Patterns of Flooding and Faulting –Fold and Thrust Belts Crustal Shortening Crustal Thickening Metamorphism and Plutonism Normal Faulting

34 Rifting Major Orogeny Orogeny Subduction Accretionary wedge Volcanism Plutonism Subduction Collision Crustal Shortening & Thickening

35 Evolution of a Mountain Belt Accumulation Stage of Sediments –Accumulation in an Opening Ocean Basin –Accumulation along a Convergent Boundary Graywackes Magmatic Arc Mountain Building Event- Orogeny

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42 Evolution of a Mountain Belt The Uplift and Block-faulting Stage –Isostacy Isostatic Adjustment –Normal Faulting Fault-block Mountain Range

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50 The Growth of Continents Crust added by accumulation & igneous activity Suspect and Exotic Terranes –Suspect terrane –Accreted terrane Exotic terrane

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53 The Wilson cycle (named after J. Tuzo Wilson, one of the fathers of plate tectonics) refers to the cycle of ocean basin formation by rifting and seafloor spreading followed by ocean basin destruction and mountain building by subduction.


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