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Geologic Structures Structural Geology – study of deformation of rocks and the forces that cause deformation.

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Presentation on theme: "Geologic Structures Structural Geology – study of deformation of rocks and the forces that cause deformation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Geologic Structures Structural Geology – study of deformation of rocks and the forces that cause deformation

2 Structural Geology is concerned with deformation of the Earth's crust Where is deformation occurring today? Plate boundaries Active orogenic belts (Impact structures) Where has deformation occurred in the past? Identify ancient orogens Relative ages of rocks vs. deformation Why do we want to understand deformation? Natural hazards Economic resources Basic science

3 The tectonic plates

4 Geologic Structures Stress – Compression, Tension, Shear

5 Stress – Strain relations Strain – Elastic, Plastic, Brittle Elastic range

6 Geologic Maps Geologic Maps – strike & dip (angle, direction), geologic cross-sections

7 Geologic Maps Folds – antiforms, synforms, limbs, hinge line (axis), axial plane, domes, basins,

8 Folds Domes

9 Truncated Dome

10 Folds Plunging folds, domes, basins

11 Types of folds Open, isoclinal, overturned, recumbent

12 Joints, cracks, fractures Tensional, compressional, sets

13 Joints, cracks, fractures Several sets

14 “Anticracks” – pressure solution Stylolites

15 Faults Fault plane, hanging wall, footwall Faults – dip-slip, strike-slip, oblique-slip

16 Fault planes Dip-slip – normal, reverse

17 Dip-slip – normal (horst & graben)

18 Dip-slip – normal fault zone, Iran Pliocene-Pleistocene, Zanjan-Tabriz highway

19 Dip-slip – reverse (thrust)

20 Strike-slip & Oblique-slip

21 כיווני מאמץ והעתקים התקצרות – חיובית התארכות - שלילית

22 Strike-slip faulting features

23 כיווני מאמץ ראשיים והעתקים התקצרות – חיובית התארכות - שלילית

24 Geologic Structures Mining

25 Geologic Structures Oil Reservoirs

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