Presentation on theme: "Freston Breakout Session: Advancing FMT research through translational studies Gary D. Wu, MD; Vincent B. Young, MD, PhD 1)Microbiome research at a cross-road."— Presentation transcript:
Freston Breakout Session: Advancing FMT research through translational studies Gary D. Wu, MD; Vincent B. Young, MD, PhD 1)Microbiome research at a cross-road 2)Humans are not mice 3)The scientific value of FMT 4)The future of FMT: Defined microbial consortia 5)Technologies available to characterize complex microbial communities. 6)The gut microbiota is a complex consortia of microbes that have been incompletely characterized 7)An example of a human gut microbiome research team What are the short- and long-term bacterial taxonomic effects of FMT? What are the short- and long-term non-bacterial microbial taxonomic effects of FMT? What are the fecal metabolomic consequences of FMT? Is there an effect of host preparation on the effectiveness of FMT inoculation? Do any of the above associations have clinical relevance in the care of patients? Are there taxonomic characteristics of the gut microbiota that are predictive of response to FMT?
Functional Studies in Animal ModelsAssociation Studies in Humans Functional Studies in Humans Therapeutic Advances in the Treatment of Disease Despite major advances in gut microbiome research showing its impact on disease, there is still a lot to be done to realize its full potential
10 Healthy volunteers Randomized to high fat vs. low fat diet 10 day inpatient stay with same meals each day Caloric intake adjusted to maintain current weight Daily stool sample collection Mouse Human Humans are Not Mice: The Effect of Diet on the Gut Microbiota
FMT is a window into the biology of the gut microbiome in humans: Translation of findings in animal models into human biology. Understand the long term consequences of manipulating the gut microbiota in humans FMT and the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes The Scientific Value of FMT The success of FMT in the treatment of CDI is “proof of principle” that the dysbiotic human microbiota can be modified to treat disease. Emphasizes the importance of using a resilient microbial community to modify dysbiosis.
The Future of FMT: Transplantation of Defined Microbial Communities Customization of consortium membership of bacteria with specific biological properties to produce predictable responses and reduce both short- and long-term adverse outcomes Laboratory defined conditions prevent pathogen transmission Development of standardized conditions for the transplantation (inoculation) and maintenance of the community Durable communities that are resilient to change
Normon et al. Gastro 2014, in press Bacteria Viruses FungiArchaea Competition Syntrophy Enhanced Pathogenicity Predator-Prey Relationship
* Co-Principal Investigators DNA sequencing, data analysis, and mathematical modeling *Frederic D. Bushman, PhD (Penn) Hongzhe Li, PhD (Penn) Rob Knight, PhD (U of C, Boulder) Penn Human Microbiome Project Team Patient/subject recruitment and phenotyping, dietary assessment, sample collection and processing *Gary D. Wu, MD (Penn) *James D. Lewis, MD (Penn) Robert Baldassano, MD (CHOP) The Joint Penn-CHOP Center for Digestive, Liver, and Pancreatic Medicine Center for Molecular Studies in Digestive and Liver Diseases (P30 DK050306) NIH instrument grant S10RR and NIH CTSA grant UL1RR Demonstration Project UH2/3DK (Wu, Bushman, Lewis, Co-PIs) Ying Jun Chen, Sam Minot, Serena Dollive, Eric Chen, Meenakshi Bewtra, Christian Hoffmann, Ying-Yu Chen, Sue A. Keilbaugh, Kyle Bittinger, Jennifer Hwang, Erin Gilroy, Kernika Gupta, Lisa Nessel, Lindsey Albenberg, Judith Kelsen, Colleen Judge, Christel Chahoud, David Shen, Rohini Sinha, David Metz, Tatiana Esipova Gary L. Lichtenstein, MD (Penn) Charlene Compher, PhD, RD (Penn) Anthony Otley, MD (Dalhousie) Anne Griffiths, MD (Toronto) Metabolomics Michael Bennett, PhD (CHOP) Biological Oxymetry Sergei Vinogradov, PhD Marc Yudkof, MDf (CHOP)
Requirements for Translational Team Science Teams composed of investigators with varied interests and expertise. Communication and coordination of teams is essential and sometimes difficult. Standardization of procedures and techniques needed if multicenter group (common).
Example HMP UH2/3 Human microbiome project: Role of the gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of pouchitis About 30% of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) undergo colectomy after 15y Ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) is surgical treatment of choice
Folker MeyerEugene Chang Dionysios Antonopoulos, Jennifer Brulc, Yunwei Wang, Laura Harrell, Andreas Wilke Vincent Young Gary Huffnagle Pat Schloss James TiedjeThomas Schmidt James Cole, Ryan Penton Mitchell Sogin Susan HuseHilary Morrison
Analysis “Targeted” “Untargeted”
Communication is Key Between investigative teams With patients With regulatory bodies
Ethical, Legal and Social Issues Similar to issues in Human Genome Project – Informed consent Much is still “unknown” – Data sharing Deposit data rapidly (identification?) – Return of results If we don’t know what the microbiome “causes” how do we advise study subjects/patients?