Of Polar Bears, Subsistence Farmers, Florida Residents, and Scientists http://query.nytimes.com/search/query?srcht=s&sr chst=m&vendor=&query=global+warming&submi t.x=107&submit.y=10 http://query.nytimes.com/search/query?srcht=s&sr chst=m&vendor=&query=global+warming&submi t.x=107&submit.y=10
Environment: Global Issues Climate change Ozone depletion Acid rain and persistent organic pollutants –Some mercury in your tuna? Tropical deforestation –Loosing biodiversity fast? Fisheries depletion/collapse –No cod fish today? Trade in pesticides –Raspberries sprinkled with DDT? Trade in hazardous waste –Whose soil are your computer chips contaminating? Trade in genetically modified organisms (GMOs) –Like those pig genes in your tomatoes? Etc., etc., etc.
History of Environmental Cooperation Domestic environmental movements: 1960s, 1970s Global meetings on the environment –Stockholm, 1972 -> UNEP –Rio, 1992 -> Agenda 21 –Johannesburg, 2002 ->Plan of Imlementation International environmental treaties/law –Over 160 Multilateral Environmental Treaties
The Tragedy of the Commons Garrett Hardin (1968). Pasture: common resource Each farmer increases the size of his herd Commons degraded and cannot sustain livestock Individual rational behavior, results in collective ruin to all
“Each man is locked into a system that compels him to increase his herd without limit in a world that is limited. Ruin is the destination toward which all men rush…”(Hardin 1968, p. 41)
Stratospheric Ozone Depletion Ozone layer shields Earth from UV rays Chemicals such as CFCs and halons release chlorine (CI) in the upper atmosphere Chlorine reacts with ozone molecules -> less ozone Health effects and effects on materials
The Ozone Layer Regime Vienna Convention (1985) Montreal Protocol (1987) –limits 50% reduction of CFCs, freeze on halons Montreal Protocol amendments »CFCs and halons eliminated; »Over 90 substances regulated Bringing developing countries in: »Trade restrictions, 10 years grace period for compliance, assistance
Explaining Ozone Cooperation Hegemonic interests The role of institutions The role of domestic politics The role of scientists, negotiators
The Climate Problem Natural greenhouse effect, augmented by human activity Anthropogenic emissions of CO2, NOx, methane and other green house gases (GHGs). GHGs accumulate, trap heat beyond natural bounds Global Warming AKA Climate Change Effects: Temp increase 1.4-5.8C by 2100? Sea level rise of 0.09-0.88m by 2100?
Melting Glaciers Boulder Glacier, Glacier National Park, Montana, July 1932 Boulder Glacier, Glacier National Park, Montana, July 1988
Climate Cooperation UN Convention on Climate Change 1992 –Adopted at the 1992 Rio Conference Kyoto Protocol to the Climate Change Convention 1997 –Emission reduction targets for industrialized countries –Trading of emissions to reduce cost –Entered into force in 2005 after Russia’s ratification –US does not participate –Developing countries: no obligations to reduce emissions
Top Six Contributors to Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions