Presentation on theme: "Properties of Matter (To study matter click here) (To study matter click here) Physical properties Chemical Properties Observed without changing the."— Presentation transcript:
Properties of Matter (To study matter click here) (To study matter click here) Physical properties Chemical Properties Observed without changing the substance into something else. Density Melting point Boiling point Mass Volume Color Dissolving Observed when a substance interacts with another substance Flammability (Burning) Reactivity (with other elements) Explosive *Click on the underlined links above to view more chemical and physical properties*
The modern periodic table uses chemical and physical properties to group the elements. Scientists use it as a tool to learn the properties of familiar elements and to learn to predict the properties of other elements.
Each square on the modern periodic table contains information about one element. Usually this includes the element’s atomic mass, atomic number, name and symbol.
The periodic table is arranged by atomic number going from left to right and from top to bottom.
Groups/ Families Are vertical columns on the table All elements in a group/ familiy have similar properties Just like all people in a family have similar features
Groups are numbered from left to right and usually take the name of the first element at the top of each column. For example, group 14 is the carbon family and group 15 is the nitrogen family. Groups/ Families
There are 7 horizontal rows across the table called periods. Each period has different numbers of elements. Period 1 has only 2 elements, hydrogen (H) and Helium (He). Periods
Periods 6 and 7 have 32 elements each. Some of the elements have been placed under the table and shown separately just so that they will fit on the page. The two rows in dark pink are the Lanthanide and Actinide series and they appear at the bottom of the period table. …Periods
Properties of Elements An element’s physical and chemical properties can be predicted from its location on the periodic table.
Basic Types of Elements
Metals are *hard, *shiny, *malleable, *ductile, *conductive of heat and electricity, and *some are attracted to magnets.malleableductile *Click on the underlined links to view definitions
Metals Most elements are metals and are found on the left hand side of the periodic table. (Excluding Hydrogen, which is a special element, not like any of the others).
Nonmetals are the opposite of metals. Nonmetals are *dull, *crumbly, *not hard, *not conductive of heat or electricity, and are *not attracted by magnets. The nonmetals are found on the upper right hand area of the periodic table.
Metalloids have properties of both metals and nonmetals. Metalloids have *varying abilities of conducting electricity and this makes them useful as semiconductors used in computers, lasers and transistors.
Metalloids are found on the table between the metals and nonmetals and form a zigzag line separating them.
Metalloids Located along the zig-zag line. Aluminum is widely debated as a metalloid by scientists.
Patterns/ Trends on the Periodic Table (more trends click here) Many physical and chemical properties can be predicted by an element’s placement on the periodic table. This is one of the reasons that the table is so useful. (more trends click here)
Physical Trends DENSITY is one physical property that usually increases as you move down the group. The MELTING POINTS of metals decrease as you move down the table.
Mercury is about the same density as gold so it is useful in separating gold from rocks. Unfortunately, it is very toxic and has harmed many environments.
Chemical properties also form patterns on the table. Metals on the left hand side of the table react readily with other substances. They become less reactive as you move to the right. Calcium is in group 2 and reacts readily with water.
Calcium in water
Gold is in group 11 and does not react with water at all. (It doesn’t even rust!) The nonmetals in groups become more reactive from left to right.
Elements in group 18 are different and almost never react with other elements. These are known as the NOBLE GASES or INERT GASES. ALL MY INDEPENDENT ELEMENTS THROW YO HAND UP AT ME!!!