Presentation on theme: "On-Site Wastewater Treatment Conventional Systems, Existing Alternatives, and Research Needs Harold W. Walker, P.E., Ph.D. Professor and Director Civil."— Presentation transcript:
On-Site Wastewater Treatment Conventional Systems, Existing Alternatives, and Research Needs Harold W. Walker, P.E., Ph.D. Professor and Director Civil Engineering
USEPA Design Manual (2002) states 10-40% removal of N in soil infiltration systems based on studies in the 1970s (p.3-23). Beal et al. (2005) reviewed the literature and found very little N removal in soil absorption systems, though depended on redox state, microbial composition, and labile carbon. Wastewater Treatment Workgroup, Chesapeake Bay Partnership (2012) established a 20% reduction credit TN in a conventional septic system based largely on earlier studies by Jennson (1990) and Long (1995). George Loomis (University of Rhode Island, Extension Service) estimates 10-15% removal of nitrogen in septic systems and cesspools, as quoted in Newsday. Survey of N Reduction Studies Scientific consensus: Little nitrogen removal occurs in septic systems with a traditional drainfield or leaching pit
Mixed Biomass –Activated Sludge Systems –Fixed Film Systems –Sequencing Batch Reactors (SBRs) Two Phase Biomass –Heterotrophic denitrification –Autotrophic denitrification Soil Infiltration/Uptake Constructed Wetlands Alternative On-Site Systems
TN Removal Capital Cost O&M Cost ReliabilityComplexityFootprintStage of Develop- ment Mixed Biomass Suspended Growth Fixed Film with Recycle Fixed Film without Recycle Integrated Fixed Film Activated Sludge Two Stage Heterotrophic Denitrification Autotrophic Denitrification AnammoxNot enough data FeammoxNot enough data Alternative On-Site Systems
TN Removal Capital Cost O&M Cost ReliabilityComplexityFootprintStage of Develop- ment Soil Systems Soil Infiltration with dosing Soil Infiltration with drip dispersal Permeable Reactive Barriers Anammox Not enough data Feammox Not enough data Constructed Wetlands Subsurface flow with prenitrification Surface flow Alternative On-Site Systems
Concluding Remarks Existing cesspools and septic systems (with leach pits) remove little nitrogen. Currently available, alternative systems can remove >50% TN in some cases, but may not be widely adopted due to cost, reliability, or other factors. Demonstrating and installing currently available alternative technology is a good start, but better technology is needed. Significant advances in technology will be made if R&D funding available
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