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HIGH SCHOOL ACHIEVEMENT IN AMERICA: What Do We Know? Louisiana High School Commission The Education Trust December, 2004.

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Presentation on theme: "HIGH SCHOOL ACHIEVEMENT IN AMERICA: What Do We Know? Louisiana High School Commission The Education Trust December, 2004."— Presentation transcript:

1 HIGH SCHOOL ACHIEVEMENT IN AMERICA: What Do We Know? Louisiana High School Commission The Education Trust December, 2004

2 What Do We Know About Student Achievement?

3 12th Grade Achievement In Math and Science is Up Somewhat

4 High School Achievement: Math and Science: NAEP Long-Term Trends Source: NAEP 1999 Trends in Academic Progress.

5 In Reading, 12th Grade Achievement is Headed Downward

6 HIGH SCHOOL ACHIEVEMENT: READING AND WRITING NAEP Long-Term Trends

7 What about different groups of students?

8 Gaps Narrow NAEP Reading 17 Year-Olds Source: US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. NAEP 1999 Trends in Academic Progress (p. 107) Washington, DC: US Department of Education, August 2000

9 Gaps Narrow NAEP Math Scores, 13 Year-Olds Source: US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. NAEP 1999 Trends in Academic Progress (p. 108) Washington, DC: US Department of Education, August 2000

10 Between , that progress came to a halt…and gaps began to widen once again.

11 Gaps Narrow Then Mostly Widen Reading, 17 Year-Olds NAEP Long-Term Trends Source: US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. NAEP 1999 Trends in Academic Progress (p. 107) Washington, DC: US Department of Education, August

12 Source: US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. NAEP 1999 Trends in Academic Progress (p. 108) Washington, DC: US Department of Education, August 2000 Gaps Narrow, Then Hold Steady or Widen: Math, 17 Year-Olds NAEP Long-Term Trends 20 32

13 How much learning takes place at each level?

14 Students Make More Growth Grade 5 to 8 than Grade 9 to 12

15 Academic Growth Grades 5-8, 9-12

16 Value Added in High School Declined During the Nineties

17 Value Added Declining in High School Math... Age Growth Source: NAEP 1999 Trends in Academic Progress

18 …Still Age Growth Source: Main NAEP 1996, 2000

19 Reading: Students Entering Better Prepared, But Leaving Worse Source: NAEP 1996 Trends in Academic Progress

20 Hormones?

21 Students in Other Countries Gain far More in Middle and High School

22 TIMSS

23 Source: NCES R, Highlights From TIMSS

24

25 PISA

26 US 15 Year-Olds Rank Near Middle Of The Pack Among 32 Participating Countries

27 One measure on which we rank high? Inequality!

28 Source: OECD, Knowledge and Skills for Life: First Results From PISA 2000, *Of 27 OECD countries Performance Of U.S. 15 Year-Olds Highly Variable

29 Of course, these gaps evident when children arrive at school.

30 By Race, Ethnicity NAEP 4th Grade Reading 2003 Source: USDOE, NCES, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)

31 But they grow wider the longer students remain in school. By end of high school?

32 African American and Latino 17 Year Olds Do Math at Same Levels As White 13 Year Olds Source: NAEP 1999 Long Term Trends Summary Tables (online)

33 African American and Latino 17 Year Olds Read at Same Levels as White 13 Year Olds Source: Source: NAEP 1999 Long Term Trends Summary Tables (online)

34 And these are the students who remain in school.

35 Students Graduate From High School At Different Rates, 2001 Source: Jay P. Greene and Greg Forster, “Public High School Graduation and College Readiness Rates in the United States,” Manhattan Institute for Policy Research, September 2003.

36 Louisiana?

37 Over Past Decade, State Among the Biggest Gainers in Student Achievement in Elementary, Middle Grades

38 NAEP 4th Grade Math: LA ( )

39 NAEP 8th Grade Math: LA ( )

40 LA: NAEP Grade 4 Math Over Last Decade LA students made third biggest growth in country; Growth for Whites and Blacks exceeded national growth; In 2003, performance of each group of students not much different than national average.

41 LA: NAEP Grade 8 Math Over Last Decade Second in growth overall; Fourth in growth for black students; Second in growth for white students;

42 NAEP READING OVER DECADE: LA 4 th Graders Growth for white students tied for ninth nationally; Achievement for black students flat.

43 States with Biggest Gains for African American 8 th Graders (NAEP 2003 Math*) Source: USDOE, NCES, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) * Gains Between 2000 and 2003

44 States with Biggest Gains for Poor 8 th Graders (NAEP Math*) Source: USDOE, NCES, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) * Gains Between 2000 and 2003

45 Yet Big Challenges Remain

46 LA By Race, Ethnicity NAEP 4th Grade Reading 2003 Source: USDOE, NCES, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)

47 LA By Race, Ethnicity NAEP 8th Grade Math 2003 Source: USDOE, NCES, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)

48 High School and Beyond?

49 Upper Level Course Taking: LA vs. Top States LATOP States 8 th Graders Taking Algebra 4%35% 9-12 th Graders Taking at Least One Upper Level Math Course 49%59% 9-12 th Graders Taking at Least One Upper Level Science Course 24%41%

50 LA: Enrollment in AP K-12 Enrollment AP Calculus AP English AP Biology Black48%13%17%12% White49%73%65%68%

51 Louisiana: 9 th Graders Who Graduate with a Diploma 4 Years Later

52 Education Pipeline in LA K-122-Year Colleges 4-Year Colleges Black48%34%27% White49%57%61%

53 Inevitable?

54 What Most Educators Say: They’re poor; Their parents don’t care; They come to schools without breakfast; Not enough books Not enough parents...

55 Hambrick Middle School, Aldine, TX 94% African American and Latino (state = 56%) 85% low-income (state = 50%) Has performed in the top fifth of all Texas middle schools in both reading and math in both 7 th and 8 th grades over a 3-year period.

56 Prince Edward County High, Farmville VA Sources: Virginia Department of Education Web site, (715 students – 55% African American and Latino)

57 Norview High School Norfolk, VA

58 Norview High School 67% African American 28% White 2% Latino 45% Low-Income Outperformed the state and district in math and reading in 2003

59 High Achievement at Norview High School Math, 2003 Source: The Department of Education,

60 High Achievement at Norview Source: The Department of Education,

61 MA: Passing HS Competency Exam Source: Massachusetts Department of Education Web site.

62 MA: Narrowing the High School Competency Gap Source: Massachusetts Department of Education Web site.

63 MA: Narrowing the High School Competency Gap Source: Massachusetts Department of Education Web site.

64 MA: Narrowing the High School Competency Gap Source: Massachusetts Department of Education Web site.

65 SO, WHAT CAN WE DO? Five questions to help frame improvement efforts.

66 #1. Can we agree on a single, overarching goal for high school that will give clearer purpose, focus to our reform efforts?

67 KIDS AND PARENTS ARE CLEAR: THEIR GOAL IS COLLEGE Source: U.S. DOE, NCES, Getting Ready to Pay for College: What Students and Their Parents Know About the Cost of College Tuition and What They Are Doing to Find Out, September 2003.

68 Indeed, Most High School Grads Do Go On To Postsecondary Within 2 Years Source: NELS: 88, Second (1992) and Third (1994) Follow up; in, USDOE, NCES, “Access to Postsecondary Education for the 1992 High School Graduates”, 1998, Table 2.

69 Source: US bureau of Labor Statistics and Bureau of the Census, Current Population Survey, March 2002 That’s Good, Because Education Pays: Annual Earnings of yr-olds by Attainment, 2001

70 But Many of Those College Freshmen Not Prepared…and Do Not Return for Sophomore Year Source: Tom Mortensen, Postsecondary Opportunity, No. 89, November 1999

71 Why? At Least In Part Because Their Teachers Had Other Ideas About Their Plans

72 To break through these old attitudes, cannot equivocate. ALL students must graduate from high school ready for postsecondary education.

73 #2. It is increasingly clear that student success--in college, on assessments, and in gaining access to decent jobs-- depends on completing a rigorous, college prep-level curriculum.

74 Transcript Study: single biggest predictor of college success is QUALITY AND INTENSITY OF HIGH SCHOOL CURRICULUM Cliff Adelman, Answers in the Tool Box, U.S. Department of Education.

75 But college prep curriculum has benefits far beyond college.

76 Students of all sorts will learn more...

77 Source: USDOE, NCES, Vocational Education in the United States: Toward the Year 2000, in Issue Brief: Students Who Prepare for College and Vocation *Grade 8-grade 12 test score gains based on 8th grade achievement. Low Quartile Students Gain More From College Prep Courses*

78 MATH ACHIEVEMENT LEVELS BY GRADE 8 PERFORMANCE Source: Maureen Hallinan, “Ability Grouping and Student Learning,” May, 2002

79 They will also fail less often...

80 Challenging Curriculum Results in Lower Failure Rates, Even for Lowest Achievers Source: SREB, “Middle Grades to High School: Mending a Weak Link”. Unpublished Draft, Ninth-grade English performance, by high/low level course, and eighth-grade reading achievement quartiles

81 And they’ll be better prepared for the workplace.

82 Requirements for Tool and Die Makers Four or five years of apprenticeship and/or postsecondary training; Algebra, geometry, trigonometry and statistics; Average earnings: $40,000 per year.

83 Requirements for Sheet Metal Workers Four or five years of apprenticeship; Algebra, geometry, trigonometry and technical reading;

84 Time for a Default Curriculum? Texas Indiana

85 #3. Shouldn’t we stop leaving teachers on their own to decide what and how to teach in “college prep” courses?

86 Students can do no better than the assignments they are given...

87 Grade 10 Writing Assignment A frequent theme in literature is the conflict between the individual and society. From literature you have read, select a character who struggled with society. In a well-developed essay, identify the character and explain why this character’s conflict with society is important.

88 Grade 10 Writing Assignment Write a composition of at least 4 paragraphs on Martin Luther King’s most important contribution to this society. Illustrate your work with a neat cover page. Neatness counts.

89 High Performing Schools and Districts Have clear and specific goals for what students should learn in every grade, including the order in which they should learn it; Provide teachers with common curriculum, assignments; Assess students every 4-8 weeks to measure progress; ACT immediately on the results of those assessments.

90 #4. How can we provide extra instruction for students who arrive behind?

91 When Kids Are Behind, Schools Must Provide More Instruction and Support: Kentucky provides extra time for struggling students in high-poverty schools Maryland offers extra dollars for 7th and 8th graders who need more support Massachusetts and Ohio provide extra tutoring, instruction for students not perform

92 Most of us think of semester- or year-long increments to teach kids what they need to learn, but...

93 The Full Year Calendar

94 Less Summer Vacation

95 Less Weekends, Holidays, & Summer Vacation

96 Less Professional Development Days & Early Dismissal/Parent Conferences

97 Less Class Picnic, Class Trip, Thanksgiving Feast, Christmas, Kwanzaa, Hannukkah, Awards, Assembles, & Concerts

98 Less State and District Testing

99 Bottom Line: Roughly Eight-Hour Days Per Subject Per Year

100 #5. How Can We Organize Schools in Pursuit of Different Outcomes

101 It’s easy to fall into a pattern of blaming poor results on problems “beyond our control.” For example, high 9 th grade failure rates generally blamed on poor preparation, difficult transitions. But…

102 One Colorado High School: Student/Teacher Ratio by Grade Grade9th10th11th12th Average number of students per teacher Source: Jovenes Unidos & Padres Unidos; March, 2004.

103 Same Colorado High School: Counselor Deployment by Grade Grade9th10th11th12th Number of Counselors 1111 Number of Students Source: Jovenes Unidos and Padres Unidos; March, 2004

104 Likewise, large achievement gaps at exit…typically blamed on large achievement gaps at entry. But…

105 Poor kids and kids of color get less than their fair share of experienced and well educated teachers.

106 Classes in High Poverty High Schools More Often Taught by Misassigned* Teachers *Teachers who lack a major or minor in the field Source: National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future, What Matters Most: Teaching for America’s Future (p.16) 1996.

107 Math and Science Classes of Mostly Minority Students Are More Often Taught by Misassigned Teachers Source: Jeannie Oakes. Multiplying Inequalities: The Effects of Race, Social Class, and Tracking on Opportunities to Learn Mathematics and Science (Rand: 1990)

108 Poor and Minority Students Get More Inexperienced* Teachers *Teachers with 3 or fewer years of experience. “High” and “low” refer to top and bottom quartiles. Source: National Center for Education Statistics, “Monitoring Quality: An Indicators Report,” December 2000.

109 Even Within Schools, Often Big Differences

110 One PA High School Joint analysis conducted by teachers and Ed Trust staff showed how best educated and most experienced teachers were teaching high end students, with mostly brand new and undereducated teachers teaching struggling students. Moreover, school created master schedule that made that imbalance even worse.

111 PA HS Master Schedule: Regular Team Sample

112 PA HS Master Schedule: Pre-IB Team Sample

113 PA HS Master Schedule: IB/AP Teacher Sample

114 In other words, the choices we make either exacerbate—or ameliorate—achievement gaps.

115 The Education Trust Download this Presentation At Washington, DC: Oakland, CA:


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