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Presentation on theme: "“DEVICE CHARACTERIZATION MADE EASY”"— Presentation transcript:


2 AGENDA Part I Part II OVERVIEW Introduction System Architecture
Connections and Configuration KCON – Configuration Utility Configuration Navigator Menus Overview 3. BASIC SOURCE-MEASURE CONCEPTS SMU source-measure configurations Sweep concepts Sourcing versus Sinking Local Sense versus Remote Sense 4. ESSENTIAL KITE KITE Overview Getting started Configuring ITMs Configuring UTMs Displaying Test Results Using Device and Test Libraries Executing Test Plans Creating a New Project Part II ADVANCED MEASUREMENTS Making Stable Measurements Low Current Measurements Guarding and Shielding ADVANCED KITE Configuring Timing settings Optimizing speed versus noise Graphical and numeric data analysis Managing KITE application files Creating custom devices in KITE KULT Overview Understanding KULT window Creating /modifying KULT user modules LPT library function overview LPTlib – KITE interaction via UTM’s KXCI overview KXCI console

3 Introduction 4200-SCS is a powerful and versatile system for DC characterization of semiconductor devices and test structures Combines fast and accurate SMUs, embedded Windows NT-based PC, and friendly Keithley Test Environment This course will provide essential user skills to work with 4200-SCS User Manual and Reference Manual can be found on every 4200-SCS desktop


Use supplied 3-lug triaxial cables Connect SMU Force to DUT HI Connect SMU Common to DUT Common Shield and DUT LO Connect SMU Guard to DUT Guard Shield

Example of 3-terminal connection Ground Unit (GNDU) should be used for COMMON connections, whenever possible

Alternative connection possible using all Force terminals Any of the SMUs can be programmed to serve as circuit COMMON Use same connections on units with PreAmps

Example of switch matrix connection Recommended cables: 4200-MTRX-X or 4200-TRX-X Same connection scheme when using system with PreAmps Recommended switch mainframes: KI 707(A), KI 708(A) Recommended matrix cards: KI 7071, 7072, 7172, 7174A Fully supported by KITE software

9 CONNECTIONS AND CONFIGURATION (cont) Control and Data connections – rear panel view
Fan Power receptacle LAN (network) connector Keyboard /mouse connector IEEE-488 (GPIB) connector Trigger link (not supported) Interlock connector Instrument slots 1 through 8 Ground unit Serial Port Parallel Port SVGA (video monitor) port

10 CONNECTIONS AND CONFIGURATION (cont) Interlock connection
Without interlock, SMU output is limited to +/-20 V Interlock will engage the 200V range Use supplied interlock cable to connect to safety switch on test fixture or probe station dark box Safety switch closes circuit between pins 1 and 2 of the interlock cable Yellow Interlock LED on 4200-SCS front panel will be lit when interlock is engaged

KCON is used to manage configuration of the internal 4200-SCS instruments (SMUs) and external system components KCON supports switch matrices, CV analyzers, Pulse Generators, Probers, other GPIB instruments KCON main window contains Configuration Navigator and KCON Work Area

Click on any internal or external instrument in Navigator window to see its Properties SMUs and PreAmps also have Self Test button on their Properties window Self Test utility allows user to run internal hardware checks – report appears in Pass/Fail window

Switch matrix card Properties window allows easy connections configuration Rows are typically connected to instruments Columns are typically connected to DUT This configuration is referenced by KITE software to close matrix connections

A basic SMU is a voltage or current source (depending on chosen force function) in series with I-meter, and in parallel with V-meter I-limit or V-limit circuitry allows to maintain compliance limits Guard circuit follows the Force potential to prevent current leakage Sense circuitry allows remote voltage sensing bypassing current-carrying Force circuit Ground Unit provides full Kelvin connection to instrument COMMON, but does not have source-measure capability

15 BASIC SOURCE-MEASURE CONCEPTS Source-Measure Configurations
Source I – Measure V configuration turns SMU into high-impedance CURRENT SOURCE Current is limited by compliance setting If I=0, SMU becomes VOLTMETER Source V – Measure I configuration turns SMU into low-impedance VOLTAGE SOURCE Voltage is limited by compliance setting If V=0, SMU becomes AMMETER

16 BASIC SOURCE-MEASURE CONCEPTS Sourcing and Sinking – Operating Boundaries
SMUs can operate in four quadrants Quadrants I and III are sourcing (I and V have same polarity) Sourcing SMUs deliver power to load Quadrants II and IV are sinking (I and V have different polarity) Sinking SMUs dissipate power Power boundaries of the SMUs are limited to 2 W (medium-power 4200-SMU) or 20 W (high-power 4210-SMU).

Local sensing is done on high-impedance devices (above 1 kΩ) SMU uses Force connections to make measurements When current is high enough to generate voltage drop across cable, use remote sense Remote sense allows to measure voltage directly across DUT, since current drop across sense lines is negligible

SDM (Source-Delay-Measure) cycle: Set source output level Wait for the source delay Make the measurement Delay and Measure times can be controlled from KITE Three sweep types: Linear, Logarithmic, Custom Each step (sweep point) is an SDM cycle Additional timing variable in sweep – Hold Time (initial delay before sweep starts)

19 ESSENTIAL KITE Power-up and log-on
Power-up: disconnect DUTs, stay clear of SMU output connectors / probes Log-on: KIUSER (no password) or KIADMIN (password: KIADMIN1) If KITE doesn’t load by default, use Windows START->PROGRAMS menu

KITE is the main software component and primary user interface for the 4200-SCS KITE interface contains: Menu area Toolbar area Site Navigator Project Navigator KITE workspace Message area Status bar KITE interface consists of a variety of graphical user interfaces (GUIs) that allow you to do the following: Configure new or modify existing Interactive Test Modules (ITMs) or User Test Modules (UTMs) Interactively build and edit test and execution sequences using Project Navigator Execute individual tests or test sequences, including auxiliary operations (switch matrix connections, prober movements, etc) View test results, numerically and graphically, in the KITE workspace area Analyze test results using built-in parameter extraction tools View the analysis test results, numerically and graphically

21 ESSENTIAL KITE Getting started: “vds-id” test
In KITE, select: File -> Open Project In the Open KITE Project File dialog, open Default folder, then click on default.kpr file, and click Open Enable Project Navigator by selecting View -> Project Navigator Open “vds-id” ITM by double-clicking it in the Project Navigator The goal of this exercise is to setup a test and obtain a drain curve family from a MOSFET. This will introduce the new users to the features and menus of KITE. The exercise begins by opening the Default project and an ITM called “vds-id”. The Default project comes standard on every 4200, and is a good starting point for the first-time or entry-level users. The Default project contains typical tests used to characterize basic devices such as MOSFET, BJT, diode, resistor, and capacitor. An ITM (Interactive Test Module) is a basic element of a Project, and is used to setup and execute a single test, and then view and analyze its results. Each ITM, when open, has a Workspace Window Tab (on the bottom), which allows the user to quickly access this ITM when other ITMs are open. Each ITM has four tabs on the top: Definition, Sheet, Graph, and Status (see picture). The Definition tab is the primary interface for configuring an ITM. It allows you to configure an interactive test and display the current configuration. It also contains Formulator analysis tool and the Timing controls interface. The Sheet tab displays the test results in its Data worksheet real time as the test executes. It also has auxiliary worksheets Calc and Settings. All three worksheets can be exported (saved as a file) in spreadsheet or text format, using Save As… interface. The Graph tab allows the user to create and export graphs of the test and analysis results. The Status tab monitors the configuration status of the test and provides resolution suggestions if there are any configuration problems.

22 ESSENTIAL KITE Getting started: “vds-id” test
Make physical connections to the MOSFET using triax cables Modify test definition: select different instrument for the Bulk terminal (GNDU-SMU4) Modify force-measure settings for the Gate terminal (SMU3) – change stepping to v Display the “vds-id” graph (Graph tab) Execute the “vds-id” test (Run button on the Toolbar) View graph and data update real-time Save results (Save button on the Toolbar) Export the data (Sheet -> Save As…) Export the graph (Graph -> right-click -> Save As…) Modify force-measure settings for the Gate terminal (SMU3) back to 2-5 v Execute the test using Append button View new data appended to the old graph, and also on the Append1 sheet of the Data tab During this exercise the user performs all the steps necessary to configure a test, execute it, view, save, and export results. These are the most essential skills necessary to use the 4200-SCS.

23 ESSENTIAL KITE Introducing a User Test Module (UTM)
Add a new UTM to the 4terminal-n-fet Device Plan, give it a name Open the UTM by double-clicking it in the Project Navigator Under User Libraries, select KI42xxulib Under User Modules, select Rdson42xx Enter / modify user parameters Save module Execute the UTM by clicking the Run button View the results in the Data tab Create another UTM using the Matrixulib library and the ConnectPins module This exercise introduces the users to another type of test modules – UTMs. It shows that the UTMs can be used to control the 4200’s internal instrumentation (Rdson test) as well as external instruments like a switch matrix (ConnectPins) or a wafer prober.

24 ESSENTIAL KITE Sequencing tests
Open the first four ITMs under 4-terminal MOSFET Device Plan in Default project Select Window ->Tile from the Menu Area to view all four ITMs at once Click on the Graph tab of each ITM to view all graphs simultaneously In the Project Navigator, click on 4terminal-n-fet Device Plan Click Run and watch the tests execute sequentially, per Device Plan Execution can be aborted at any time Change the execution sequence: open Device Plan window Select a test and move it using Move Up or Move Down buttons Click Apply to save changes to the Test Sequence Table Same techniques apply to sequencing Device Plans within a Subsite, and Subsites within a Site A Site plan can be executed multiple times (up to 999) Multiple site execution settings can be modified by double-clicking on the project name in the Project Navigator This exercise teaches the user how to executes multiple tests in sequence. There are several levels of sequencing: Device Plan, Subsite, and Site. Also, Site plans can be executed in a loop multiple times. Sequencing is important for test automation. For example, by combining ITMs with UTMs performing auxiliary functions like prober movements and switch matrix connections, it is possible to design a project that tests an entire wafer automatically.

25 ESSENTIAL KITE Creating a new project
In KITE, select File -> New Project. A “Define New Project” window will open Name the project (up to 260 characters including directory path, no spaces) Specify location (or accept default location C:\S4200\kiuser\Projects\) Specify number of sites (up to 999) Turn ON or OFF the Project Plan Initialization and Termination Steps, click OK to accept Insert new Subsite Plan(s) Insert new Device Plan(s) – from a toolbar menu, or using Device Library To use Device Library, double-click on the Subsite Plan, then use Copy and Submit buttons To use Test Library, double-click on the Device Plan, then use Copy and Submit buttons When submitting two identical tests to the same project, they are assigned unique ID’s (UID) When done building project, select File -> Save All To create a copy of the project under a different name, select File -> Save Project As…

Single SMU stability considerations Current source instability may be caused by driving large inductive loads, but is very rare Voltage source instability may be caused by driving large capacitive loads on low current measurement ranges Multiple SMU stability considerations Two categories: high-frequency (100kHz – 200MHz) and low-frequency (below 100kHz) The models 4200-SMU and 4210-SMU have been designed to be stable under a wide variety of applications; however in certain situations it is possible to encounter SMU instability. The most frequent type of instability in case of a single SMU is the voltage source instability, caused by driving larger capacitive loads on low current measurement ranges. It can be eliminated by increasing the sweep Delay Factor, and / or by adding a small resistor in series with the capacitive load, to achieve an RC time constant of 1ms to 10ms. Using two or more SMUs to test an active device, such as a transistor, can aggravate system stability. In general, multiple-SMU oscillations can be classified in two categories: high-frequency oscillations (100 kHz – 200 MHz), and low-frequency oscillations (below 100 kHz). High-frequency oscillations can be remedied by the following measures: Mount PreAmps as close to the DUTs as possible. Connect the COMMONs (outer shields) of all cables together at the DUT. Use ferrite beads or 100Ω resistors in series with the DUT leads. Disconnect the ground link between GNDU COMMON and chassis ground on the rear panel of the unit. Connect the cable shields to the prober chassis. Low-frequency oscillations occur when the gain of a transistor under test interacts with the output impedance of the connected SMUs. To eliminate low-frequency oscillations, try following: For a FET, set (Drain-SMU current measure range) = (Source-SMU current measure range). For a BJT, set (Collector-SMU current measure range) = (Emitter-SMU current measure range). For both transistor types, if necessary set both SMUs to autorange. Instead of using Common forcing function, use Voltage Bias set to bias 0 V. This allows you to control current measure range.

Leakage currents can be prevented by: Using good quality insulation in cables, test fixtures, and probe cards (Teflon, polyethylene, ceramics) Reducing humidity to <50% RH Cleaning insulator surface from contaminants (skin oils and salts, solder flux, etc.) Signal guarding Low-current measurements are subject to a number of error sources that can have a serious impact on measurement accuracy. Among some of the frequent error sources are leakage currents. Leakage currents are generated by high resistance paths between the measurement circuit and nearby voltage sources. Some ways to reduce leakage currents are to use good quality insulation, reduce humidity and surface contamination, and use guarding. When choosing insulator material for a test fixture, the most important parameter is volume resistivity. Some other factors to consider: water absorption, piezo- and triboelectric effects, and dielectric absorption. Among the best materials for insulators are Teflon, polyethylene, and ceramics. Insulation resistance can be dramatically reduced by high humidity and ionic contamination. High-humidity conditions result in condensation and water absorption into dielectrics, while ionic contamination may be the result of body oils, salts, or solder flux. To avoid the effects of contamination and humidity, select insulators that resist water absorption (such as Teflon), and keep humidity to <50% RH. If insulators become contaminated, clean them thoroughly with a pure solvent such as methanol, and let them dry. Guarding is a technique that helps prevent leakage currents in cables and test fixtures between FORCE and COMMON, or between SENSE and COMMON. A guard is a conductor that provides a buffered voltage that is at the same potential as the FORCE or SENSE HI lead that is being guarded. Guard is available as the inner shield of the FORCE and SENSE triaxial connectors for both the SMU and the PreAMP. In the unguarded circuit (fig. …-A), the cable leakage resistance RL is effectively in parallel with the DUT resistance RDUT, creating an unwanted leakage current IL. This leakage current may seriously affect readings, especially at low current levels. In the guarded circuit (fig. …-B), the cable guard is driven to the same potential as the FORCE lead. Since voltage across RL is nearly 0V, the leakage current is effectively eliminated.

Generated currents Offset currents Triboelectric effects Piezoelectric and stored charge effects Dielectric absorption Any extraneous generated currents in the test system will add to the measured current, causing errors. Currents can be generated internally, as in the case of PreAMP input offset current, or externally, for example in insulators and cables. Offset Currents The ideal ammeter should read zero when its input terminals are left open. In reality, ammeters have some small current that flows even when the input is open. This current is known as the input offset current, and is caused by bias currents of active devices as well as by leakage currents through insulators within the instrument. Input offset currents are usually included in the instrument’s specifications. Input offset current can be nulled by performing system Auto Calibration. To maintain performance specifications, a 4200-SCS system must be Auto Calibrated every 24 hours, or any time after the ambient temperature has changed more than +/-1 ºC. To initiate Auto Calibration, select Tools->Auto Calibration in KITE, and follow on-screen instructions. Offset currents can also be generated externally from such sources as triboelectric and piezoelectric effects. These external offset currents can be suppressed manually by subtracting them using the KITE Formulator or KITE Calc worksheet. Triboelectric Effects Triboelectric currents are generated by charges created between a conductor and an insulator due to friction. Here, free electrons rub off the conductor and create a charge imbalance that causes the current flow. The triax cables supplied with the SMU and PreAMP greatly reduce this effect by using graphite-impregnated insulation underneath the outer shield, which provides lubrication and a conducting cylinder to equalize charges. However, even this type of cable can create noise when subjected to vibration. Therefore, all connections should be kept short, away from temperature changes, and sources of vibration. Piezoelectric and Stored Charge Effects Piezoelectric currents are generated when mechanical stress is applied to certain crystalline materials when used for insulated terminals and interconnecting hardware. In some plastics, pockets of stored charge cause the material to behave in a manner similar to piezoelectric materials. Charges are moved around, resulting in a current flow. To minimize the offset current due to this effect, it is important to remove mechanical stresses from the insulator, and use insulating materials that have minimal piezoelectric and stored charge effects. Dielectric Absorption Dielectric absorption in an insulator can occur when a voltage across that insulator causes positive and negative charges within the insulator to polarize because various polar molecules relax at different rates. When the voltage is removed, the separated charges generate a decaying current through circuits connected to the insulator as they recombine. To minimize the effects of dielectric absorption on current measurements, avoid applying voltages greater than a few volts to insulators being used for sensitive current measurements. In cases when this practice is unavoidable, it may take minutes or even hours for the dielectric absorption current to dissipate.

Voltage burden Source impedance Cable capacitance Interference Electrostatic interference RF interference Ground loops Voltage Burden A SMU or PreAMP may be represented by an ideal ammeter with zero internal resistance, in series with a resistance RM. When a current source forces a current through the measurement circuit, the meter resistance RM creates an additional voltage drop called voltage burden (VBURDEN), which reduces the measured current from its theoretical value. Voltage burden for the SMUs is less than or equal to the offset specifications of the source voltage. Source Impedance Source resistance of the DUT will affect the noise performance of the SMU or PreAMP. As the source resistance decreases, the current noise increases. See the table for recommended source resistance values for various measurement ranges. DUT source capacitance will also affect the noise performance of the PreAMP. In general, as the source capacitance increases, the noise gain also increases. Cable Capacitance Without guarding, the effects of cable capacitance would adversely affect the settling time when sourcing current. For a high-impedance load, even a small amount of cable capacitance can result in long rise times. For example, cable capacitance of 100pF and a load resistance of 1GΩ will result in RC time constant of 100ms. Guarding drastically reduces cable capacitance, resulting in much faster rise times. When sourcing voltage, the rise time due to cable capacitance is usually insignificant. Interference DC electrostatic fields can cause undetected errors or noise in the reading. AC electrostatic fields can cause errors by driving amplifier into saturation, or through rectification that produces DC errors. Electrostatic interference is first recognizable when hand or body movements near the DUT cause fluctuations in the reading. Pick-up from AC fields can also be detected by observing the output on an oscilloscope. Electrostatic interference can be minimized by shielding and reduction of electrostatic fields. RF (Radio Frequency) interference covers a wide range of frequencies of electromagnetic spectrum, and is usually caused by steady-state sources such as TV or radio broadcast signals, impulse sources, such as sparking (electric motors) or arcing. RF interference can be dealt with by shielding the DUT, the DUT and the test cables, and (if possible) by removing the sources of the RF signals. Ground Loops Ground loops take place when more than one point in a test system is connected to earth ground, and can result in parasitic currents than can affect the measurement. To prevent ground loops, the test system should be connected to earth ground only at a single point. Sometimes it can be achieved by removing the GNDU COMMON-to-EARTH link on the rear panel of the 4200-SCS, but note that this can also result in oscillations.

30 ADVANCED KITE Configuring Speed and Timing Settings
Two key issues in making good measurements with a low-current semiconductor analyzer are addressed via controls on the ITM Definition tab – settling time and noise. Settling time is the time that a measurement takes to stabilize after the voltage or current is changed, such as in a sweep. Instrument settling time varies mainly with current range System settling time depends on cables/switches/probers DUT settling time depends on implicit characteristics of the DUT (e.g., capacitance, resistance) Settling time due to DA (Dielectric Absorption) – an issue only on the low current ranges Measurement Noise is affected by many factors, but the basic relationship is this: the larger the A/D integration time, the lower the noise. Since power lines are principal sources of noise, A/D integration times are usually configured in the Number of Power Line Cycles (NPLCs). ITM Timing Window Speed and Timing settings Fast, Normal, Quiet are pre-configured combo speed settings, while Custom allows individual tuning of speed factors Delay Factor – a multiplier for the range-dependent pre-programmed default delay time: Applied Delay Time = (Range Default Delay Time) x (Delay Factor) Allowed range of values: 0 to 100 Filter Factor – a multiplier for the range-dependent pre-programmed filter value. Filtering includes averaging of multiple readings to return one measurement. A/D Integration Time is the time the SMU A/D converter “looks” at the signal Auto – allows the system to adjust A/D integration time with the range Custom – specifies the minimum A/D conversion time (also subject to the Filter Factor setting) Allowed range of values: 0.01 to 10 PLC Sweep Delay – additional delay, in seconds, added to each point (each SDM cycle) in the Sweeping mode Allowed range of values: 0 to 1000 s Hold Time – a one-time delay, in seconds, before the beginning of a Sweep or Sampling Interval – time between measurements in the Sampling mode #Samples – the number of samples to be acquired in the Sampling mode Allowed range of values: 1 to 4096

31 ADVANCED KITE Graphical and Numeric Data Analysis
This exercise will demonstrate how to calculate and plot sub-threshold slope of a MOSFET transistor characteristic. Open the SubVt test module from the Default project Open the Formulator from the Definition tab The slope is calculated by performing an exponential line fit over a specified portion of the Id-Vg curve The STARTI and STOPI variables specify which portion of the Id-Vg curve will receive the line fit The following Formulator functions are used: EXPFIT, FINDD, EXPFITB Once the IDFIT variable is calculated, it can be plotted on the graph by specifying it in the Define Graph menu of the Graph tab The SUBVTSLP (slope) value can be displayed in the graph area by selecting Data Variables menu from the Graph Properties

32 ADVANCED KITE Graphical and Numeric Data Analysis
The same slope line fit can be done graphically – by enabling the Line Fits menu from the Graph Properties In the SubVt ITM, click on the Graph tab to display the Id-Vg graph Right-click anywhere in the graph area to get the Properties menu Select Line Fits… Turn Fit #1 On, select type: Exponential, Axis/Series: Data:DrainI, click OK The two reference cursors can be re-positioned by dragging them with a mouse Magnitude of the slope can be found in the exponential fit equation below the graph

33 ADVANCED KITE Managing KITE Application Files and Test Results
KITE application files and test results are stored on the 4200-SCS hard disk by default. While in most cases it is not necessary, the files can be manipulated (move/copied) using Windows NT file management tools, such as Windows NT Explorer and MS-DOS command prompt In general, KITE application files should never be edited directly using a text file editor – it may cause unexpected results and/or application crashes By default, all sample projects and standard libraries included with KTE Interactive are stored in the C:\S4200\kiuser directory IMPORTANT: All binary and executable files that KTE Interactive needs to control the 4200-SCS are stored in the system folder C:\S4200\sys The files in this folder must not be modified in any way, neither by the 4200-SCS users nor by system administrators. This folder must reside on the 4200-SCS hard disk

34 ADVANCED KITE Creating Custom Devices in KITE
To create a new device in KITE, the following three files must be created: The Keithley Device (.kdv) file The bitmap (.bmp) file for the Project Navigator device icon The bitmap (.bmp) file for the ITM Definition tab device graphic The .kdv file can be edited using the Notepad accessory in Windows NT. The .bmp files can be edited using the MS Paint accessory in Windows NT. All of the above files are located by default in C:\S4200\kiuser\Devices\…

35 KULT – Keithley User Library Tool Overview
The Keithley User Library Tool (KULT) is a tool used to create and manage user libraries. A user library is a collection of one or more user modules. User modules are C programming language subroutines (or functions). User libraries are created to control instrumentation, analyze data, or perform any other system automation task programmatically. Once a user library has been built using KULT, its modules can be executed in KITE as User Test Modules (UTMs). KULT interface allows users to enter code, compile the module, build (link) the library. It also has such user-library management features as Copy Module, Copy Library, Delete Module, and Delete Library. KITE dynamically loads the user module and the appropriate user library. KITE passes the user-module parameters to the user module for execution. Once module is executed, data is returned to KITE for interactive analysis and plotting.

36 KULT – Keithley User Library Tool Understanding the KULT Window
The KULT interface can be opened by clicking on the shortcut icon on the 4200-SCS desktop, or by selecting KULT from the Windows’ Start->Programs->Keithley menu. The KULT window has the following areas (in the top-down order): Menu Bar Module Identification area Module Parameter display area (read-only) Module code-entry area Terminating-brace area (read-only) Tab areas (Parameters / Includes / Description / Build) Status Bar

37 KULT – Keithley User Library Tool Creating a KULT user module
Open KULT window Name a new user library Name a new user module Enter the function (module) return type Enter the source code Enter parameters Enter / check header files Document the module in the Description area Save, compile, and build the module Find compile / build errors and debug the code Open KITE, create / name a new User Test Module (UTM) Configure the new UTM by selecting the user library and user module Enter user parameter value(s) Save the module Execute the module in KITE – view results

38 KULT – Keithley User Library Tool LPT Library Overview
The Keithley Linear Parametric Test Library (LPTlib) is a high-speed data acquisition and instrument control software library. It is the programmer’s lowest level of command interface to the system’s instrumentation. By default, KULT automatically enters the keithley.h header file into the Includes tab area. This header file includes all the necessary header files that allow linking to the LPT libraries. All LPTlib functions are case sensitive and must be entered as lower case when writing program codes. The LPTlib includes the following groups of functions: Instrument control Matrix control SMU ranging SMU sourcing SMU measuring Combination Timing GPIB RS232 General Execution Arithmetic

39 KXCI – Keithley External Control Interface Overview
The Keithley External Control Interface (KXCI) allows user to remotely control the SMUs in the 4200-SCS via GPIB. When controlled by an external computer, the 4200-SCS functions like any other GPIB instrument. The KXCI command set is similar to the command set used by the HP 4145B parameter analyzer. When the 4200-SCS is used in KXCI mode, it can emulate the 4145, or itself. In the 4200 KXCI mode, the 4145-style commands are extended to take advantage of the extra ranges offered by the 4200 SMU’s.



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