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Feb 10Integration of RRTs in Sim Models SPWLA Topical Conference Integration of Reservoir Rock Types in Simulation Models Shawket Ghedan, PhD Petroleum Institute

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Feb 10Integration of RRTs in Sim Models2 Development and Identification of RRTs Reservoir Rock Types, RTTs developed by integrating: Petrophysical Lab data, Pore system information, and Capillary Pressure Data. RRTs can be identified by the following parameters: Rock Fabric: texture, grain size, packing & pore geometry Proportion of primary porosity and secondary porosity. Porosity/ permeability relationships Range of, and similarity in pore throat size distribution, Similar Pc curves and saturation end points.

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Feb 10Integration of RRTs in Sim Models3 RRTs in Static and Dynamic Models Static RRTs are routinely employed for: Modeling of reservoir petrophysical attributes, as well as Building & assigning the required water/ oil and Gas/ oil Kr curves to the different cells of the simulation models. There is a problem with the second application: Static RRT schemes do not consider the reservoir multiphase flow properties of wettability, fluids IT, etc…

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Feb 10Integration of RRTs in Sim Models4 Static vs Kr-Defined RRTs Hamon introduced the Kr-defined rock types (SPE 84035, 2003 ATCE). Definition of Kr-Defined Rock Types: Kr-defined rock types are defined as units of rock characterized by similar ranges of pore geometry and wettability indicators resulting in a unique relative permeability saturation relationships.

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Feb 10Integration of RRTs in Sim Models5 Kr-Defined RRTs or Dynamic RRTs For the same saturation history cycle in a reservoir, the rock multiphase flow properties would only be a function of wettability only for any static RRT. In a reservoir with a wettability profile, each RRT would have many Wettability Driven Dynamic RRTs. Therefore, imposing the effect of reservoir wettability on the RRTs is essential in developing and assigning the Kr curves to the cells of simulation models. Each would have unique relative permeability curves and saturation endpoints.

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Feb 10Integration of RRTs in Sim Models6 USBM WI vs Depth from Well A of Hawiyah area SPE

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Feb 10Integration of RRTs in Sim Models7 USBM WI versus Depth from Well B of Hawiyah area SPE

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Feb 10Integration of RRTs in Sim Models8 USBM WI versus Depth for Uthmaniyah area SPE

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Feb 10Integration of RRTs in Sim Models9 Reservoir Wettability Profile Wells perforations Producers down to X000 ftss Injectors up to X150 ftss Wettability Oil Wet at Top structure Water Wet Below DOL.

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Feb 10Integration of RRTs in Sim Models10 Transition zone is conventionally defined as that part of the reservoir where water saturation start to deviate from irreducible saturation down to 100% saturation.. Transition zones in Carbonate reservoirs could be fairly thick. depending on reservoir characteristics. Transition Zone?

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300 oil producers, screened to identify Deepest perforations of dry oil producers, and Static RRTs of their producing layers. From Which Identified the Dry Oil Limit of the reservoir RRTs. Feb 10Integration of RRTs in Sim Models11 Dry Oil Limit

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Feb 10Integration of RRTs in Sim Models12 DOL for any rock type was found to be always appreciably deeper than the top of the conventional transition zone. The difference depends on the rock types encountered and profile of rock wettability changes. Transition zone is better defined as the reservoir part where both phases of oil and water are mobile. Alternative Definition of TZ

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Feb 10Integration of RRTs in Sim Models13 Requirements of Saturation Tables Log-derived W/O Pc curves. Swirr at top of structure, Swc at Dry Oil Limit

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Feb 10Integration of RRTs in Sim Models14 History Matching of Available Exp Kr Data Use Corey Model for history matching For various RTs determined No and Nw with Depth

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Feb 10Integration of RRTs in Sim Models15 History matching of Available Exp Data Exp Kr data for RT1 No and Nw variation with Depth

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Feb 10Integration of RRTs in Sim Models16 History Matching of Exp Data Poor Limestone RT8 No and Nw variation with Depth

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Feb 10Integration of RRTs in Sim Models17 Variation of Corey Exponents No = (2.8 to 5.0) Nw = (1.3 to 2.6) Poorer RTs Increasing Depth Porosity No Increase Decrease Constant NwIncrease Increase Constant

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Feb 10Integration of RRTs in Sim Models18 Correlation of Sorw vs. Swi or Swc

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Feb 10Integration of RRTs in Sim Models19 Correlation of Sorw vs. Swi or Swc A correlation is developed to relate Sorw to Swc. For Each Rock Type Swc ranges: From Swirr, at the top of the reservoir, to Sw value at the DOL level (top of the transition zones)

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Feb 10Integration of RRTs in Sim Models20 It is well established that Sorw as well as Krw max at Sorw would be lower for more water wet rock. Effect of Wettability on Krw max and Sorw From Dave Bowen of Core Lab

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Feb 10Integration of RRTs in Sim Models21 Impact of Wettability on End Points of Kr Curves From Dave Bowen of Core Lab

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Feb 10Integration of RRTs in Sim Models22 The available data did not yield clear relationship between Krw(Sorw) Vs Sorw But a straight line relationship was forced that fits the general trend of the data. Krw max versus Sorw

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Feb 10Integration of RRTs in Sim Models23 Number of DRRTs Per Static RRT The number of DRRTs generated per each SRRT is decided by the number of the Sw increment employed to go from Swirr down to Swc at the DOL of each drainage Pc curve of each static RRT. For instance, using a 5% Sw increment with seven maximum steps would produce up to 21 DRRTs (Kr sets) for each static RRT.

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Feb 10Integration of RRTs in Sim Models24 1.For each depth, Swc is picked from any drainage Pc curve, ranging from Swirr up to Swc at DOL, then: 2.Use Swc to determine Sorw from the proposed correlations, similar to Land correlation Generation of DRRTs (Kr Curves) 3.Use depth and rock type to determine Corey’s exponents, Nw and No, using a table look up. 4.Use Sorw to determine Krw max from the proposed correlation (Kro max is taken as 1.0):

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Feb 10Integration of RRTs in Sim Models25 5.Use the Corey Krw and Kro models to determine Krw and Kro for any water saturation between any Swc and its Sorw. Generation of Kr Curves

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Feb 10Integration of RRTs in Sim Models26 Set of Kr curves for Limestone RRT 4 of 15% porosity. Generation of Kr Curves

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Feb 10Integration of RRTs in Sim Models SPWLA Topical Conference

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