Ja ogas sulu aizvietot ar TiO 2 saules elementu efektivitāte ir >11%
Šo saules elementu efektivitāte ir ap 0,1% Vislabākie rezultāti ir iegūtie ar ekstrahētam no Jaboticaba (ISC = 9 mAcm-2, VOC=0.59 V) un Calafate (6 mAcm -2, 0.47 V) ogu sulu antocianiniem. Pārējie antocianini, ekstrahēti no ērkšķogu sulas dod pārvēršanas efektivitāti ap 0.56 % Jaboticaba
Visefektivakie saules elementi Silicija bāzes saules elementu efektivitāte TipsEffektivitāte Laboratorijas Apstakļos % Effektivitāte Komercialā Izstradajumā % Monokristāliskai s 2414-17 polikristāliskais1813-15 amorfs135-7
CAS Number1317-80-2 MDL NumberMFCD00011269 Molecular FormulaTiO 2 Molecular Weight79.90 Color and Formwhite powder Specific Surface Area (BET)≥500 m 2 /g Crystallite SizeAmorphous Average Pore Diameter32Å Total Pore Volume≥0.4 cc/g Bulk Density0.6 g/cc True Density3.7 g/cc Mean Aggregate Size5μm Loss on Ignition≤12% Moisture Content≤4% Ce Content (Based on Metal)≥99.999% Par virsmas porainību liecinā The table below lists the physical and chemical properties of Titanium (IV) Oxide Nanopowder Titanium (IV) Oxide Nanopowder http://www.azonano.com/details.asp?ArticleId=2282
Solaronix A series of calibrated current-voltage measurements of sealed Dye Solar Cells were carried out by the Fraunhofer Institut für Solare Energiesysteme (Freiburg, Germany). An efficiency of 10 % was obtained by the solar cells assembled at the EPFL in Lausanne (simulated sunlight AM 1.5, 1000 W/m 2 ). Fig: 5. Current-Voltage plot of a Dye Solar Cell of 0.257 cm 2 (eff. = 10 %, AM 1.5, VOC = 823 mV, ISC = 16.9 mA/cm 2, ff = 72.5 %) Such performances were achieved with the bis-tetrabutylammonium salt of Ru(dcbpy) 2 (NCS) 2 as a sensitizing dye (Ruthenium 535-bisTBA). Using a salt instead of the protonated sensitizer (Ruthenium 535) prevents an irreversible votage drop in the solar cell due to a too high acidity during dye adsorption on the TiO 2. In addition, the electrolyte is based on acetonitrile and organic iodide salt.Ruthenium 535-bisTBARuthenium 535 When operating in a solar cell the sensitizer S gets excited by the visible light. Then it gets oxidized due to charge injection, and recycled by iodide reduction. The rate constants for charge injection and iodide reduction are at least 109 times higher than the rate constants for excited and oxidized state degradation. The sensitizer should be able to undergo around one billion cycles without significant degradation. Side reactions such as sensitization of oxygen are efficiently suppressed due to ultrafast electron injection into TiO 2. Solaronix has performed a variety of studies concerning the stability of the sensitzer, the electrolyte, the redox couple, and the sealing of solar cells. The Ru(dcbpy) 2 (NCS) 2 sensitizer has been validated for a commercial application. Light soaking experiments on photovoltaic devices at different temperatures have proved the long- term stability of this sensitizing dye. The liquid electrolyte has can be encapsulated for many years under thermal cycling with the suitable sealing material chemically inert to triiodide. Dye solar cells from Solaronix showed a remarkable photochemical stability under intense and continous light irradiation. After 6000 hours at full sunlight, corresponding to about seven years of outside light exposure in central Europe, no loss of tri-iodide or chemical transformation of the sensitizer was observed. Heating of a test solar cell at 70°C for 1000 hours under irradiation did not affect the conversion efficiency, indicating an excellent chemical stability.
Indola atvasinājumi Indole occurs naturally as a building block in the amino acid tryptophan, in dyes and many alkaloids. Substituted with an electron withdrawing anchoring group on the benzene ring and an electron donating group on the nitrogen atom, these dyes have a great potential as sensitizers. A remarkable efficiency of 6.1 % with D102 was published in 2003 which triggered a number of subsequent studies. By Optimizing the substituents, an efficiency of 8 % was achieved with D149 This value was even exceeded recently by optimizing the TiO2- layer properties (9 % )