10 Excellent tensile strength Non– toxic Good chemical stability Excellent thermal stability Biocompatible High dielectric constant Excellent charge storage capacity Environmentally friendly Advantages of PVA
11 Wider electrochemical potential window Non– flammable Non–volatile Plasticizing effect High ion content Superior electrochemical stability Excellent thermal stability Non–toxic Advantages of Ionic Liquids
12 Filler Inorganic Passive Organic Graphite fibre Aromatic polyamide Cellulosic rigid rods (whiskers) Inert metal oxide Molecular sieves and zeolites Ferroelectric materials Rare earth oxide Solid superacid Carbon Nano–clay Heteropolyacid Lithium–nitrogen (Li 2 N) Lithium aluminate (LiAlO 2 ) Lithium containing ceramics Titanium carbides (TiC x ) Titanium carbonitrides (TiC x N y ) Active
13 Enhance interfacial stability Advantages of Fillers Reduce T g Enhance thermal stability Increase cationic diffusivity Improve physical properties Improve morphological properties Lower interfacial resistance Decrease the crystallinity Reduce water retention Improve long–term stability
Supercapacitors Pseudo–capacitors Redox reaction Electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) Charge accumulation Hybrid capacitors Conducting polymers Metal oxide Carbon 12
ELECTRIC DOUBLE LAYER CAPACITORS (EDLCS) Longer cycle life Higher power density Higher capacitive density Faster charge– discharge rate Higher ability to be charged and discharged continuously without degradation Inexpensive 15
16 High microporosity (pore dimension: <2nm) Limit the accessibility of charge carriers Hard diffusion Disadvantages of AC CNT
A) SAMPLE PREPARATION 20 PVA+ BmImBr+ SiO 2 / TiO 2 /ZrO 2 /Al 2 O 3 Stir and heat at 80 °C Cast on Petri dish Formation of free standing polymer electrolyte EIS DSC LSV SiO 2 TiO 2 ZrO 2 Al 2 O 3
B) ELECTRODE PREPARATION 21 80 wt.% of activated carbon 5 wt.% of carbon black 5 wt.% of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) 10 wt.% of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF) 1–methyl–2–pyrrolidone solvent Stir for several hours Dip coating process
C) EDLC FABRICATION & CHARACTERIZATION Configuration: electrode/polymer electrolyte/electrode 22 Figure 1: The fabricated EDLC using the highest conducting ionic liquid–added polymer electrolyte from each system. Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) Galvanostatic Charge–Discharge (GCD)
24 Ambient Temperature–Ionic Conductivity Studies Figure 2: The logarithm of ionic conductivity of polymer electrolyte at different mass fraction of (a) SiO 2 and (b) ZrO 2.
25 Figure 3: The logarithm of ionic conductivity of polymer electrolyte at different mass fraction of (a) TiO 2 and (b) Al 2 O 3.
26 Temperature Dependent–Ionic Conductivity Studies Figure 4: Arrhenius plot of filler–free polymer electrolyte and filler–doped NCPEs.
27 SampleActivation energy, E a (eV) Log APre–exponential constant, A Filler–free system 0.2751–2.84421.43×10 -3 Si system0.2119–1.83960.0145 Zr system0.1431–0.75130.18 Ti system0.1413–0.73070.19 Al system0.1280–0.48340.33
28 Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) Figure 5: Glass transition temperature (T g ) of polymer electrolytes. TgTg
29 TmTm Figure 6: Crystalline melting temperature (T m ) of polymer electrolytes.
30 Heat of Fusion (Jg -1 ) Relative crystallinity (%) Filler–free system 719.7100 Si system358.750 Zr system287.60.40 Ti system217.10.30 Al system203.30.28 TcTc Figure 7 : Crystallization temperature (T c ) of polymer electrolytes.
31 Linear Sweep Voltammetry (LSV) Figure 8: LSV response of the most conducting polymer electrolyte from each system. Filler–free system Si system Zr system Ti system Al system 1.2 V 2.2 V 2.0 V 2.3 V 2.2 V
32 Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) Filler–free system 0.15 F g -1 1.74 mF cm -2 Figure 9: Cyclic voltammogram of EDCL containing the most conducting polymer electrolyte from (a) filler–free system and (b) Si system. (a)
33 Figure 10: Cyclic voltammogram of EDCL containing the most conducting polymer electrolyte from (a) Zr system, (b) Ti system and (c) Al system.
34 Galvanostatic Charge–Discharge Analysis (GCD) Si system Figure 11: Galvanostatic charge–discharge performances of EDLC containing (a) Si system and (b) Zr system over first 5 cycles. (a) (b)
35 Ti systemAl system 4.34 F g -1 8.62 F g -1 Figure 12: Galvanostatic charge–discharge performances of EDLC containing (a) Ti system and (b) Al system over first 5 cycles. (a)(b)
36 System Specific discharge capacitance, C sp (F g -1 ) Coulombic efficiency, η (%) Energy density, E (W h kg -1 ) Power density, P (W kg -1 ) Si system2.58860.1834.94 Zr system4.16400.3636.76 Ti system4.34760.4238.41 Al system8.62810.9541.15
CONCLUSIONS Addition of nano–sized fillers Increases the ionic conductivity Follows Arrhenius rules for the conduction mechanism Reduces the Tg and crystallinity Improves the electrochemical stability window Enhances the electrochemical properties of EDLCs (i.e. capacitance) Alumina–based polymer electrolyte is a good choice as separator in EDLC 37
38 Miss Liew Chiam Wen Madam Lim Jing Yi Miss Shanti Rajantharan Mr. Mohammad Hassan Khanmirzaei Mr. Vikneswaran Rajamuthy Mr. Ng Hon Ming Mr. Mohd Zieauddin bin Kufian Madam Rajammal Mr. Ramis Rao Mr. Lu Soon Chien Miss Nurul Nadiah Supervision Dr. Yugal Kishor Mahipal Miss Chong Mee Yoke
39 WELCOME TO MALAYSIA Alumina–based polymer electrolyte