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Chapter 15: Special Senses. Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 15: Special Senses. Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 15: Special Senses

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7 Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. (a) (b) (c) (d) Fungiform papillae Taste bud Circumvallate papilla Epiglottis Palatine tonsil Foliate papillae Lingual tonsilBasal cell Taste fibers of cranial nerve Connective tissue Gustatory receptor cells Taste pore Gustatory hair Stratified squamous epithelium of tongue Gustatory (taste) cells Taste pore Connective tissue Basal cells Figure 15.23: Location and structure of taste buds on the tongue, p. 581.

8 Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Figure 15.24: The gustatory pathway, p Gustatory cortex (in insula) Thalamic nucleus (ventral posterior medial nucleus) Pons Solitary nucleus in medulla oblongata Facial nerve (VII) Glosso- pharyngeal nerve (IX) Vagus (nerve X)

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10 Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Figure 5.21: Olfactory receptors, p Mitral cell Olfactory gland Olfactory tract Olfactory epithelium Filaments of olfactory nerve Cribriform plate of ethmoid bone Lamina propria connective tissue Basal cell Supporting cell Dendrite Olfactory cilia Glomeruli Axon Olfactory receptor cell Mucus Route of inhaled air containing odor molecules Frontal lobe of cerebrum Nasal conchae Route of inhaled air Olfactory epithelium Olfactory tract Olfactory bulb

11 Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Figure 5.22: Olfactory transduction process, p G olf Receptor Extracellular fluid Cytoplasm OdorantAdenylate cyclase Na + Ca 2+ GTP GDP cAMP ATP

12 George Wald 1906 – 1997 received the Nobel Prize in 1967 for discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye

13 Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Figure 15.1a: The eye and associated accessory structures, p (a) Eyelashes Sclera (covered by conjunctiva) Site where conjunctiva merges with cornea Lateral commissure (canthus) Iris Medial commissure (canthus) Lacrimal caruncle Eyelid Eyebrow Pupil Palpebral fissure

14 Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Figure 15.1b: The eye and associated accessory structures, p (b) Levator palpebrae superioris muscle Orbicularis oculi muscle Eyebrow Tarsal plate Palpebral conjunctiva Tarsal glands Cornea Palpebral fissure Eyelashes Bulbar conjunctiva Conjunctival sac Orbicularis oculi muscle

15 Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Figure 15.2: The lacrimal apparatus, p Lacrimal sacLacrimal gland Excretory ducts of lacrimal gland Lacrimal punctum Lacrimal canaliculus Nasolacrimal duct Inferior meatus of nasal cavity Nostril

16 Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Figure 15.3: Extrinsic eye muscles, p (a) (b) (c) Optic nerve Inferior rectus muscle Inferior oblique muscle Superior oblique muscle Annular ring Trochlea Superior oblique tendon Superior rectus muscle Lateral rectus muscle Conjunctiva Axis at center of eye Medial rectus muscle Inferior rectus muscle Lateral rectus muscle Lateral rectus Medial rectus Superior rectus Inferior rectus Inferior oblique Superior oblique NameAction Moves eye laterally Moves eye medially Elevates eye and turns it medially Depresses eye and turns it medially Elevates eye and turns it laterally Depresses eye and turns it laterally VI (abducens) III (oculomotor) IV (trochlear) Controlling cranial nerve

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19 Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Figure 15.4a: Internal structure of the eye (sagittal section), p (a) Ora serrata Ciliary body Ciliary zonule (suspensory ligament) Cornea Iris Anterior pole Pupil Anterior segment (cavity) Lens Scleral venous sinus (Canal of Schlemm) Posterior segment (cavity) (contains vitreous humor) Optic nerve Posterior pole Fovea centralis Macula lutea Retina Choroid Sclera Central artery and vein of the retina Optic disc (blind spot)

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23 Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Figure 15.6b: Microscopic anatomy of the retina, p (b) Neural layer of retina Pigmented layer of retina Central artery and vein of retina Optic nerve Sclera Choroid Optic disc

24 Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Figure 15.6a: Microscopic anatomy of the retina, p (a) Amacrine cell Horizontal cell Rod Cone Pigmented layer of retina Bipolar cells Ganglion cells Pathway of light

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26 Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Figure 15.13: Focusing for distant and close vision, p (a) Lens is flattened for distant vision (b) Lens bulges for close vision (c) Anterior segment viewed from behind Lens Inverted image Ciliary zonule Ciliary muscle Nearly parallel rays from distant object Sympathetic + Divergent rays from close object Inverted image Parasympathetic + Ciliary muscle Lens Ciliary zonule (suspensory ligaments)

27 Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Figure 15.15: Photoreceptors of the retina, p Process of bipolar cell Outer fiber Apical microvillus Discs containing visual pigments Inner segment Melanin granules Pigment cell nucleus Inner fibers Rod cell body Cone cell body Synaptic terminals Rod cell body Nuclei Mitochondria Connecting cilia Outer segment Pigmented layer Basal lamina (border with choroid) Retinal Opsin Discs being phagocytized (a) (b) Light

28 Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Figure 5.19: Visual fields of the eyes and visual pathway to the brain, inferior view, p (a)(b) Pretectal nucleus Right eyeLeft eye Fixation point Optic radiation Superior colliculus (sectioned) Lateral geniculate body Optic tract Optic chiasma Uncrossed (ipsilateral) fiber Crossed (contralateral) fiber Optic nerve Lateral geniculate body of thalamus Superior colliculus Occipital lobe (visual cortex) Corpus callosum Supra- chiasmatic nucleus

29 Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Figure 15.25a: Structure of the ear, p (a) External (outer) ear Middle ear Internal (inner) ear (labryinth) Pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube External acoustic meatus Auricle (pinna) Helix Lobule Tympanic membrane

30 Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Figure 15.25b: Structure of the ear, p (b) Pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube Auditory ossicles Entrance to mastoid antrum in the epitympanic recess Tympanic membrane Semicircular canals Cochlea Cochlear nerve Vestibular nerve Oval window (deep to stapes) Round window Incus (anvil) Malleus (hammer) Stapes (stirrup) Internal jugular vein Vestibule External acoustic meatus

31 Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Figure 5.26: The three auditory ossicles in the right middle ear, p Pharyngotym- panic tube Tensor tympani muscle Tympanic membrane (medial view) Stapes Malleus Superior Anterior IncusEpitympanic recess Stapedius muscle

32 Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Anterior Semicircular ducts in semicircular canals: Posterior Lateral Cristae ampullares in the ampullae Utricle in vestibule Saccule in vestibule Stapes in oval window Temporal bone Facial nerve Vestibular nerve Superior vestibular ganglion Inferior vestibular ganglion Cochlear nerve Maculae Spiral organ (of Corti) Cochlear duct in cochlea Round window Figure 5.27: Membranous labyrinth of the internal ear, p. 586.

33 Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Figure 5.29: Sound: source and propagation, p (a)(b) (c) Area of compressed molecules Crest Trough TimeAmplitude Area of rarefaction Wavelength Air pressure

34 Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Figure 15.31: Route of sound waves through the ear, p Fluids in cochlear canals Upper and middle Internal earExternal ear Pinna External acoustic meatus Air Tympanic membrane Malleus, incus, stapes (ossicles) Oval window Lower Middle ear One vibration Time Spiral organ (of Corti) stimulated Amplification in middle ear Amplitude Pressure

35 Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Figure 15.35: Structure of a macula, p Macula of utricle Macula of saccule Otoliths Hair bundle Kinocilium Stereocilia Otolithic membrane Vestibular nerve fibers Hair cells Supporting cells

36 Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Figure 15.36: The effect of gravitational pull on a macula receptor cell in the utricle, p Otolithic membrane Kinocilium Stereocilia Receptor potential Nerve impulses generated in vestibular fiber Depolarization (Hairs bent towar kinocilium) d Hyperpolarization (Hairs bent away from kinocilium) Increased impulse frequency Excitation Decreased impulse frequency Inhibition

37 Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Figure 15.37: Location and sturcture of a crista ampullaris, p (a) (c) (d) (b) Cupula Cupula at rest Position of cupula during turn Turning motion Fluid motion in ducts Afferent fibers of vestibular nerve Increased firingDecreased firing Position of cupula during turn Ampulla of left ear Ampulla of right ear Horizontal ducts Flow of endolymph Cupula Crista ampullaris Fibers of vestibular nerve

38 Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Figure 15.38: Pathways of the balance and orientation system, p Input Central nervous system processing Output Oculomotor control (cranial nerve nuclei III, IV, VI) (eye movements) Spinal motor control (cranial nerve nuclei XI and vestibulospinal tracts) (neck movements) Vestibular receptors Visual receptors Cerebellum Vestibular nuclear complex Reticular nuclei Somatic receptors


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